行业知识
  • 海上保险船舶战争、罢工险条款 PICC WAR RISK
    一九八六年一月一月一、责任范围本保险承保由于下述原因造成被保险船舶的损失、碰撞责任、共同海损和救助或施救费用:(一)战争、内战、革命、叛乱或由此引起的内乱或敌对行为;(二)捕获、扣押、扣留、羁押、没收或封锁,但这种赔案必须从发生日起满六个月才能受理;(三)各种战争武器,包括水雷、鱼雷、炸弹;(四)罢工、被迫停工或其他类似事件;(五)民变、暴动或其他类似事件;(六)任何人怀有政治动机的恶意行为。二、除外责任由于下列原因引起被保险船舶的损失,责任或费用,本保险不负赔偿责任:(一)原子弹、氢弹或核武器的爆炸;(二)由被保险船舶的船籍国或登记国的政府或地方当局所采取的或命令的捕获、扣押、扣留、羁押或没收;(三)被征用或被征购;(四)联合国安理会常任理事国之间爆发的战争(不论宣战与否)。三、保险终止(一)保险人有权在任何时候向被保险人发出注销本保险的通知,在发出通知后7天期满时生效;(二)不论是否已发注销通知,本保险在下列情况下应自动终止:1.任何原子、氢弹或核武器的敌对性爆炸发生;2.联合国安理会常任理事国之间爆发的战争(不论宣战与否);3.船舶被征用或出售。四、承保原则(一)本保险系本公司船舶保险的附加险。船舶保险的条款也适用本保险,但与本保险条款有抵触时.则以本保险条款为准(二)被保险船舶如同时有其他保险,任何索赔应由其他保险负责时,本保险不负赔偿责任。(三)如本保险由于第三条的原因终止时,净保费可按日比的退还给被保险人。本保险不办理停泊退费。HULL WAR AND STRIKES CLAUSES1/1/86I Scope of coverThis Insurance covers loss of or damage to or collision Liability of or expense arising from general average or sue and labour of the insured vessel caused by:1. War, civil war, revolution, rebellion or civil Strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act;2. Capture, seizure, arrest, detainment, confiscation or blockade, but such claim shall be dealt with only on expiry of six months from the day when such events arise,3. Any weapons of war including mines, torpedoes or bombs4. Strikes, lock-outs or other similar events;5. Civil commotions, riots or other similar events;6. Any person acting maliciously from a political motive.II ExclusionsThis insurance does not cover loss, damage, liability or expense arising from:1. Atomic or hydrogen bombe or nuclear weapons of war;2. Capture, seizure, and, detainment or confiscation by or under the order of the government or local authority of the country in which the vessel is owned or registered;3. Requisition or pre-emption,4. The outbreak of war (whether there be a declaration of war or not) between any countries which are permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations.III Terminationl. The Insurer shall be entitled to issue to the Insured at any time notice of cancellation to terminate this insurance upon expiry of seven days from the day on which the notice is issued;????2. Whether or not such notice of cancellation has been given, this insurance shall terminate automatically;l) Upon the occurrence of any hostile detonation of atomic or hydrogen bombe or nuclear weapon of war;2) Upon the outbreak of war (whether there be a declaration of war or not) between any countries which are permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations;3) In the event of requisition or sale of the vessel.IV General Conditionsl. This insurance is an additional insurance to the Hull Insurance of this Company. In case of conflict between any clauses under this Insurance and the Hull Insurance, the clause under this Insurance shall prevail;2. This insurance shall not be liable for any claim which would be recoverable under any other insurance but for existence of this insurance;3. In the event of cancellation by reason of operation of the clause III a pro rata daily net premium shell be returned to the Insured, but no return of premium for any lay-up of the vessel shall be payable under this insurance.
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    发布于:2022-02-10 11:07:06
  • 船舶污染1973年国际防止船舶造成污染公约 (MARPOL公约)
    1973年国际防止船舶造成污染公约     各缔约国,      意识到有保护整个人类环境特别是海洋环境的需要,      认识到船舶故意地、随便地或意外地排放油类和其他有害物质,是一种严重的污染源,      也认识到主要目的为保护环境而缔结的第一个多边协议1954年国际防止海上油污公约的重要性和该公约在防止海洋和沿海环境污染方面所作出的重大贡献。      本着彻底消除有意排放油类和其他有害物质污染海洋环境并将这些物质的意外排放减至最低限度的愿望,      考虑到达到这一目的的最好办法是制订一些不限于油污的具有普遍意义的规则,      经协议如下:      第一条 本公约的一般义务      1.各缔约国保证实施其承担义务的本公约各条款及其附则的各项规定,以防止由于违反公约排放有害物质或含有这种物质的废液而污染海洋环境。      2.除另有明文规定者外,凡引用本公约即同时构成引用其议定书及各附则。      第二条 定 义      除另有明文规定者外,就本公约而言:      1.“规则”指载于本公约附则中的各条规则。      2.“有害物质”指任何进入海洋后易于危害人类健康、有害生物资源和海生物,损害休憩环境或妨害对海洋的其他合法利用的物质,并包括应受本公约控制的任何物质。      3.      (1)“排放”一词当与有害物质或含有这种物质的废液相关时,系指不论由于何种原因所造成的船舶排放,包括任何的逸出、排出、溢出、泄漏、泵出、冒出或排空;      (2)“排放”一词不包括下列情况:      ①1972年11月13日在伦敦签订的防止倾倒废弃物和其他物质污染海洋公约所指的倾倒;或      ②由于对海底矿物资源的勘探、开发及与之相关联的近海加工处理所直接引起的有害物质的排放;或      ③为减少或控制污染的合法科学研究而进行的有害物质排放。      4.“船舶”系指在海洋环境中运行的任何类型的船舶,包括水翼船、气垫船、潜水船、浮动船艇和固定的或浮动的工作平台。      5.“主管机关”系指船舶在其管辖下进行营运的国家政府。就有权悬挂某一国家国旗的船舶而言,其主管机关即为该国政府。对于沿海国家为勘探和开发其自然资源行使主权,在邻接于海岸的海底及其底土从事勘探和开发的固定或浮动平台而言,主管机关即为该有关沿海国家的政府。      6.“事故”系指涉及实际或可能将有害物质或含有这种物质的废液排放入海的事件。      7.“组织”系指政府间海事协商组织。      第三条 适用范围      1.本公约适用于:      (1)有权悬挂一缔约国国旗的船舶;和      (2)无权悬挂一缔约国的国旗但在另一缔约国的管辖下进行营运的船舶。      2.本条中的任何规定,均不得解释为减损或扩大缔约国根据国际法为勘探和开发自然资源对于邻接其海岸的海底及其底土的主权。      3.本公约不适用于任何军舰、海军辅助船舶或其他国有或国营并目前只用于政府非商业性服务的船舶。但每一缔约国应采取不损害其所拥有或经营的这种船舶的操作或操作性能的适当措施,以保证这种船舶在合理和可行的范围内按本公约的规定行事。      第四条 违 章      1.任何违反本公约要求的事件,不论其发生在何处,应根据有关船舶主管机关的法律,予以禁止,并给予制裁。如果该主管机关获悉是项违章事件,并确信有充分的证据对被声称的违章事件起诉,则应按照其法律使这种起诉尽速进行。      2.在任一缔约国管辖区域以内的任何违反本公约要求的事件,根据该缔约国的法律,应予禁止,并给予制裁。每当发生这种违章事件时,该缔约国便应:      (1)按其法律起诉;或      (2)将其可能掌握的关于已发生违章事件的情况和证据,提交该船的主管机关。      3.如有关某一船舶违反本公约事件的情况和证据已提交该船的主管机关,则该主管机关应迅速将其所采取的行动通知提供上述情况和证据的缔约国和本组织。      4.缔约国的法律按照本条要求所规定的处罚,其严厉程度应足以阻止对本公约的违犯,并且不论此类事件发生在何处,其处罚均应同样严厉。      第五条 证书和检查船舶的特殊规定      1.除本条第2款的规定外,对于根据一缔约国授权按照规则的各项规定所颁发的证书,其他缔约国应予承认,并视为在本公约涉及的全部范围内与他们自己所颁发的证书具有同等的效力。      2.凡按照规则规定需要持有证书的船舶,当其在一缔约国所管辖的港口或近海装卸站时,应接受该缔约国正式授权的官员的检查。任何这种检查,应以核实船上是否备有有效的证书为限,除非有明显的理由认为该船或其设备的状况实质上不符合证书所载的情况。在这种情况下,或者船舶没有有效的证书时,则执行检查的缔约国应采取步骤,直至该船的出海对海上环境不致产生不当的危害威胁时,才准其开航。但是,该缔约国可允许这种船离开港口或近海装卸站而驶往可供使用的最近的适当修船厂以进行处理。      3.如果一缔约国对于一艘外国船舶由于其不符合本公约的规定而拒绝其进入他所管辖的港口或近海装卸站,或对之采取任何行动,则该缔约国应立即通知该船船旗国的领事或外交代表,如无此可能,则应立即通知该船的主管机关。在拒绝进港或采取上述行动前,该缔约国可要求与该船的主管机关进行协商。如船舶未按规则的规定携有有效的证书,也应通知主管机关。      4.对于非本公约缔约国的船舶,必要时缔约国可施用本公约的要求,以保证对这些船舶不给予更为优惠的待遇。      第六条 违章事件的侦查和本公约的实施      1.各缔约国应运用一切适当而可行的侦查和环境监测措施,适当的报告程序和证据积累,在违章事件的侦查和本公约的实施方面进行合作。      2.凡适用本公约的船舶,在一缔约国的任何港口或近海装卸站,可以受到该缔约国委派或授权的官员的检查,以核实该船是否违反规则的规定而排放了任何有害物质。如检查表明是违反了本公约的事件,则应将一份报告送请主管机关采取适当行动。      3.任何缔约国如掌握关于该船违反规则规定排放了有害物质或含有这种物质的废液的证据,应提供给主管机关。如属可行,该缔约国的主管当局应将所声称的违章事件通知该船船长。      4.在收到这种证据后,被通知的主管机关应对此事进行调查,并可要求其他缔约国对所声称的违章事件提供进一步的或更完善的证据。如果该主管机关确信有充分的证据可对所声称的违章事件起诉,则应使这种起诉按其法律尽速进行。该主管机关应将所采取的行动,迅速通知报告此项所声称的违章事件的缔约国和本组织。      5.一缔约国也可对进入受其管辖的港口或近海装卸站并适用于本公约的船舶进行检查,如果已从任一缔约国收到调查的请求和关于该船不论在何处排放过有害物质或含有这种物质的废液的充分证据。这种调查的报告应送交请求调查的缔约国和主管机关,以便能根据本公约采取适当的行动。      第七条 对船期的不当延误      1.在执行本公约第四、第五或第六条规定的情况下,应尽力避免使船舶受到不当的滞留或延误。      2.如果在执行本公约第四、第五或第六条规定的情况下船舶受到不当的滞留或延误,该船对于所受到的损失或损害,有权要求赔偿。      第八条 涉及有害物质的事故报告      1.应毫不迟延地尽力按照本公约议定书Ⅰ规定的全部内容作出事故报告。      2.每一缔约国应:      (1)为适当的官员或机构受理所有关于事故的报告,作出一切必要的安排;并      (2)将这些安排的详细情况通知本组织,以便转告其他缔约国和本组织的会员国。      3.一缔约国一旦收到本条规定的报告时,应立即将该报告转发给:      (1)所涉及的船舶的主管机关;以及      (2)可能受到影响的任何其他国家。      4.每一缔约国应指示其海上检查船和飞机以及其他适当的部门,向其当局报告本公约议定书Ⅰ中所提及的任何事故,该缔约国如认为适当,应相应地报告本组织和任何其他的有关方面。      第九条 其他的条约及解释      1.本公约一经生效,在缔约国之间,本公约即取代经修订的1954年国际防止海洋油污公约。      2.本公约的任何规定,不得损害根据联大2750C(XXV)决议召开的联合国海洋法会议对海洋法的编纂和拟订,也不得损害任何国家目前和会后就海洋法以及沿海国和船旗国的管辖权的性质和范围所提出的要求和法律上的意见。      3.本公约中“管辖权”一词,应根据在应用和解释本公约时有效的国际法来解释。      第十条 争议的解决      在两个或两个以上的缔约国之间对本公约的解释或应用所发生的任何争议,如不能通过这些国家间的协商解决,同时如这些国家又不能以其他方式取得一致意见时,经其中任一缔约国的请求,应提交本公约的议定书Ⅱ中所规定的仲裁。      第十一条 资料交流      1.各缔约国负责将下述各项文件送交本组织:      (1)就本公约范围内各项事宜所颁布的法律、命令、法令和规则以及其他文件的文本;      (2)经受权代表各该缔约国按规则规定办理关于装运有害物质船舶的设计、建造和设备事宜的非政府性机构的名单;      (3)根据规则规定所颁发的证书的足够数量的样本;      (4)接收设备的清单,包括其地点、容量和可用的设备,以及其他特点;      (5)关于本公约实施结果的正式报告或其摘要;      (6)按本组织标准格式填写的对违反本公约事件实际所作处罚的年度统计报告。      2.本组织应将收到本条规定的任何文件一事通知各缔约国,并将按本条第1款第(2)至(6)项规定送交本组织的任何资料转发所有缔约国。      第十二条 船舶事故      1.每一主管机关根据本规则规定负责其任何船舶所发生的任何事故进行调查,如果这种事故对海上环境造成了重大的有害影响。      2.每一缔约国应向本组织提供关于这种调查结果的资料,如其认为这种资料可能有助于确定本公约需作任何种修改的话。      第十三条 签署、批准、接受、核准和加入      1.本公约自1974年1月15日起至1974年12月31日在本组织总部开放供签字,此后继续开放供加入。各国可按下列方式成为本公约的缔约国:      (1)签字并对批准、接受或核准无保留;或      (2)签字而有待批准、接受或核准,随后再予批准,接受或核准;或      (3)加入。      2.批准、接受、核准或加入,应以向本组织秘书长交存一份文件来实现。      3.本组织秘书长应将任何签字或任何新近批准,接受、核准或加入的文件的交存及其交存日期,通知所有已签字或已加入本公约的国家。      第十四条 任选附则      1.在签字、批准、接受、核准或加入本公约时,一个国家可以声明,它不接受本公约的附则Ⅲ,Ⅳ和Ⅴ(以下简称“任选附则”)或不接受其中的任何附则。除上述规定外,缔约国应受任何一项附则的全部约束。      2.曾声明不受某一任选附则约束的国家,可随时通过向本组织交存第十三条第2款所规定的文件,接受该附则。      3.根据本条第1款提出声明不接受某一任选附则且以后又并未按本条第2款规定接受该附则的国家,在该附则有关事项方面,既不承担本公约所规定的任何义务,也无权要求本公约所赋予的任何权利,同时,就有关该附则各种事项而言,凡在本公约中提及各缔约国时,均不包括该国家。      4.本组织应将根据本条规定提交的任何声明,以及收到按本条第2款规定交存的任何文件,通知业已签字或加入本公约的国家。      第十五条 生 效      1.本公约在不少于15个国家按第十三条规定参加本公约之日经过12个月后生效,而该15国所拥有的商船队的吨位之和,应不少于世界商船总吨位的50%。      2.一项任选附则应在按本条第1款所规定的与该项附则相关的条件得到满足之日起经过12个月后生效。      3.本组织应将本公约生效的日期和某一任选附则按本条第2款规定生效的日期,通知业已签署或加入本公约的国家。      4.对于在本公约或任何任选附则生效的要求得到满足之后但在其生效之日前交存批准、接受、核准或加入文件的国家,其批准、接受、核准或加入应在本公约或该附则的生效之日生效,或在交存上述文件之日后经过3个月生效,以较晚的日期为准。      5.对于在本公约或某一任选附则生效之日后交存批准、接受、核准或加入文件的国家,本公约或该附则应在上述文件交存之日后经过3个月对之生效。      6.在第十六条对本公约或一任选附则的修正案的生效所要求的全部条件得到满足之日后,交存的任何批准、接受、核准或加入的文件,应适用于经修订的公约或附则。      第十六条 修 正      1.本公约可按下列各款中所规定的任一修正程序,予以修正。      2.经本组织审议后的修正:      (1)一缔约国所建议的任何修正案,应提交本组织,并应由秘书长至少在本组织审议前6个月将其散发给本组织的所有会员国和所有缔约国。      (2)本组织应将上述提案和周知的任何修正案提交给一个适当的机构进行审议。      (3)本公约的缔约国,不论其是否为本组织的会员国,有权参加该适当机构的活动。      (4)修正案必须以到会并投票的缔约国三分之二的多数票通过。      (5)修正案如按上述第(4)项的规定获得通过,则本组织秘书长应将其通知所有缔约国,以供接受。      (6)在下述情况下,一项修正案应视为已被接受:      ①对于本公约某一条款的一项修正案,在其为商船队吨位之和不少于世界商船队总吨位50%的三分之二缔约国接受之日,即应视为已被接受。      ②对于本公约某一附则的一项修正案,应按本项之③中所规定的程序视为已被接受,除非该适当机构在通过这一修正案时确定该修正案应在商船队吨位之和不少于世界商船队总吨位50%的三分之二缔约国接受之日,才能视为已被接受。但是,在本公约某一附则的一项修正案生效之前的任何时候,缔约国仍可通知本组织秘书长,必须经过该缔约国的认可,该修正案才能对之生效。海协秘书长应将这种通知及收到的日期通告各缔约国。      ③对本公约某一附则的附录的一项修正案,在适当的机构通过时所规定的期限(该期限不得少于10个月)届满时,即应视为已被接受,除非在此期限内有不少于三分之一的缔约国或其所拥有的商船队之和不少于世界商船队总吨位50%的缔约国(不论达到哪个条件均可)通知本组织表示反对;      ④对本公约议定书Ⅰ的修正案,应按上述本项之②或③中所规定的对本公约附则修正案的同样程序办理;      ⑤对本公约议定书Ⅱ的修正案,应按上述本项之①中所规定的对本公约条款修正案的同样程序办理;      (7)修正案按下述条件生效:      ①对本公约的条款,议定书Ⅰ、议定书Ⅱ或未按本条第2款第(6)项之③中所规定的程序办理的本公约附则的修正案,凡按前述规定被接受者,对于已宣布接受该修正案的各缔约国,应在其被接受之日经过6个月后生效。      ②对根据本条第2款第(6)项之③中所规定的程序办理的本公约的议定书Ⅰ、附则或附则的附录的修正案,凡按上述条件视为已被接受者,应在其被接受后过6个月对所有缔约国生效,但在该日期前声明不予接受或按第(6)项之②的规定声明须待其认可的缔约国除外。      3.由会议修正:      (1)经一缔约国提出申请,并有至少三分之一缔约国的同意,本组织应召开一次缔约国会议来审议对本公约的修正案。      (2)经这种会议以到会并投票的缔约国三分之二的多数票通过的每一项修正案,应由本组织秘书长通知所有缔约国,以供接受。      (3)除非会议另有决定,该修正案应按上述第2款第(6)和第(7)项中为此所规定的程序视为已被接受和生效。      4.      (1)如果是对于某一任选附则的修正案,则本条中所提到的“缔约国”应视为对该附则负有义务的缔约国。      (2)不接受某一附则的一项修正案的缔约国,仅就该修正案的应用而言,应视同非缔约国。      5.一项新附则的通过与生效,应按和本公约条款修正案的通过与生效相同的程序办理。      6.除另有明文规定者外,根据本条规定对本公约所作的任何修正,凡涉及船舶结构者,只适用于在该修正案生效之日或其后订立建造合同的船舶,或无建造合同但在该修正案生效之日或其后安放龙骨的船舶。      7.对于议定书或附则的任何修正案,应与该议定书或附则的实质内容有关,并应与本公约的条款相一致。      8.本组织秘书长应将根据本条规定生效的任何修正案连同其生效的日期一并通知所有缔约国。      9.根据本条规定对一项修正案所提出的接受或反对的声明,应书面通知本组织秘书长。本组织秘书长应将这种通知和收到的日期通知各缔约国。      第十七条 促进技术合作      为了促进本公约的目的和宗旨的实现,各缔约国应与本组织和其他国际机构进行协商,并在联合国环境规划署执行主任的协助和配合下,促使对那些要求技术援助的缔约国支援下列项目(最好能在有关的国家内进行):      1.培训科技人员;      2.供给必要的接收和监测设备与设施;      3.便利防止或减轻船舶污染海洋环境的其他措施和安排;      4.鼓励研究工作。      第十八条 退 出      1.任何缔约国,在本公约或任何任选附则对该缔约国生效满5年后,可随时退出本公约或该任选附则。      2.退出本公约或任选附则,应以书面通知本组织秘书长,秘书长应将所收到的任何这种通知和收到的日期,以及退出的生效日期,通知所有其他缔约国。      3.退出本公约或任选附则,应在本组织秘书长收到该项通知后经过12个月或在该通知中所指明的任何较此为长的期限届满后生效。      第十九条 保存和登记      1.本公约应由本组织秘书长保存,秘书长应将核证无误的本公约副本分送所有已签字或已加入本公约的国家。      2.本公约一经生效后,本组织秘书长应即按照联合国宪章第102条的规定,将其文本送联合国秘书长登记并公布。      第二十条 文 字      本公约正本一份,用英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文写成,每种文本具有同等效力。另备有阿拉伯文、德文、意大利文和日文的官方译本,译本与签署后的正本一起保存。下列具名的经各自政府正式授权的代表(略-译注)特签署本公约,以昭信守。 1973年11月2日订于伦敦。     INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION FROM SHIPS, 1973    The Parties to the Convention,    Being conscious of the need to preserve the human environment ingeneral and the marine environment in particular,    Recognizing that deliberate, negligent or accidental release of oiland other harmful substances from ships constitutes a serious source ofpollution,    Recognizing also the importance of the International Convention forthe Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954, as being the firstmultilateral instrument to be concluded with the prime objective ofprotecting the environment, and appreciating the significant contributionwhich that Convention has made in preserving the seas and coastalenvironment from pollution,    Desiring to achieve the complete elimination of intentional pollutionof the marine environment by oil and other harmful substances and theminimization of accidental discharge of such substances,    Considering that this object may best be achieved by establishingrules not limited to oil pollution having a universal purport,    Have agreed as follows:          Article 1 General Obligations under the Convention    (1) The Parties to the Convention undertake to give effect to theprovisions of the present Convention and those Annexes thereto by whichthey are bound, in order to prevent the pollution of the marineenvironment by the discharge of harmful substances or effluents containingsuch substances in contravention of the Convention.    (2) Unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to the presentConvention constitutes at the same time a reference to its Protocols andto the Annexes.          Article 2 Definitions    For the purposes of the present Convention, unless expressly providedotherwise:    (1) "Regulations" means the Regulations contained in the Annexes tothe present Convention.    (2) "Harmful substance" means any substance which, if introduced intothe sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, to harm livingresources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with otherlegitimate uses of the sea, and includes any substance subject to controlby the present Convention.    (3) (a) "Discharge", in relation to harmful substances or effluentscontaining such substances, means any release howsoever caused from a shipand includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting oremptying;        (b) "Discharge" does not include:            (i) dumping within the meaning of the Convention on thePrevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter doneat London on November 13, 1972; or            (ii) release of harmful substances directly arising from theexploration, exploitation and associated off-shore processing of seabedmineral resources;  or            (iii) release of harmful substances for purposes of legitimatescientific research into pollution abatement or control.    (4) "Ship" means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in themarine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles,submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.    (5) "Administration" means the Government of the State under whoseauthority the ship is operating. With respect to a ship entitled to fly aflag of any State, the Administration is the Government of that State.With respect to fixed or floating platforms engaged in exploration andexploitation of the sea-bed and subsoil thereof adjacent to the coast overwhich the coastal State exercises sovereign rights for the purposes ofexploration and exploitation of their natural resources, theAdministration is the Government of the coastal State concerned.    (6) "Incident" means an event involving the actual or probabledischarge into the sea of a harmful substance, or effluents containingsuch a substance.    (7) "Organization" means the Inter-Governmental Maritime ConsultativeOrganization.          Article 3 Application    (1) The present Convention shall apply to:        (a) ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party to the Convention;and        (b) ships not entitled to fly the flag of a Party but whichoperate under the authority of a Party.    (2) Nothing in the present Article shall be construed as derogatingfrom or extending the sovereign rights of the Parties under internationallaw over the sea-bed and subsoil thereof adjacent to their coasts for thepurposes of exploration and exploitation of their natural resources.    (3) The present Convention shall not apply to any warship, navalauxiliary or other ship owned or operated by a State and used, for thetime being, only on government non-commercial service. However, each Partyshall ensure by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing theoperations or operational capabilities of such ships owned or operated byit, that such ships act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonableand practicable,  with the present Convention.          Article 4 Violation    (1) Any violation of the requirements of the present Convention shallbe prohibited and sanctions shall be established therefor under the law ofthe Administration of the ship concerned wherever the violation occurs. Ifthe Administration is informed of such a violation and is satisfied thatsufficient evidence is available to enable proceedings to be brought inrespect of the alleged violation, it shall cause such proceedings to betaken as soon as possible, in accordance with its law.    (2) Any violation of the requirements of the present Convention withinthe jurisdiction of any Party to the Convention shall be prohibited andsanctions shall be established therefor under the law of that Party.Whenever such a violation occurs, that Party shall either:        (a) cause proceedings to be taken in accordance with its law; or        (b) furnish to the Administration of the ship such information andevidence as may be in its possession that a violation has occurred.    (3) Where information or evidence with respect to any violation of thepresent Convention by a ship is furnished to the Administration of thatship, the Administration shall promptly inform the Party which hasfurnished the information or evidence, and the Organization,  of theaction taken.    (4) The penalties specified under the law of a Party pursuant to thepresent Article shall be adequate in severity to discourage violations ofthe present Convention and shall be equally severe irrespective of wherethe violations occur.          Article 5 Certificates and Special Rules on Inspection of Ships    (1) Subject to the Provisions of paragraph (2) of the present Articlea certificate issued under the authority of a Party to the Convention inaccordance with the provisions of the Regulations shall be accepted by theother Parties and regarded for all purposes covered by the presentConvention as having the same validity as a certificate issued by them.    (2) A ship required to hold a certificate in accordance with theprovisions of the Regulations is subject, while in the ports or off-shoreterminals under the jurisdiction of a Party, to inspection by officersduly authorized by that Party, Any such inspection shall be limited toverifying that there is on board a valid certificate, unless there areclear grounds for believing that the condition of the ship or itsequipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of thatcertificate. In that case, or if the ship does not carry a validcertificate, the Party carrying out the inspection shall take such stepsas will ensure that the ship shall not sail until it can proceed to seawithout presenting an unreasonable threat of harm to the marineenvironment. That Party may, however, grant such a ship permission toleave the port or off-shore terminal for the purpose of proceeding to thenearest appropriate repair yard available.    (3) If a Party denies a foreign ship entry to the ports or off-shoreterminals under its jurisdiction or takes any action against such a shipfor the reason that the ship does not comply with the provisions of thepresent Convention, the Party shall immediately inform the consul ordiplomatic representative of the Party whose flag the ship is entitled tofly, or if this is not possible, the Administration of the ship concerned.Before denying entry or taking such action the Party may requestconsultation with the Administration of the ship concerned. Informationshall also be given to the Administration when a ship does not carry avalid certificate in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations.    (4) With respect to the ships of non-Parties to the Convention,Parties shall apply the requirements of the present Convention as may benecessary to ensure that no more favourable treatment is given to suchships.          Article 6 Detection of Violations and Enforcement of the Conven-tion    (1) Parties to the Convention shall co-operate in the detection ofviolations and the enforcement of the provisions of the presentConvention. using all appropriate and practicable measures of detectionand environmental monitoring, adequate procedures for reporting andaccumulation of evidence.    (2) A ship to which the present Convention applies may, in any port oroff-shore terminal of a Party, be subject to inspection by officersappointed or authorized by that Party for the purpose of verifying whetherthe ship has discharged any harmful substances in violation of theprovisions of the Regulations. If an inspection indicates a violation ofthe Convention,  a report shall be forwarded to the Administration for anyappropriate action.    (3) Any Party shall furnish to the Administration evidence, if any,that the ship has discharged harmful substances or effluents containingsuch substances in violation of the provisions of the Regulations. If itis practicable to do so, the competent authority of the former Party shallnotify the Master of the ship of the alleged violation.    (4) Upon receiving such evidence, the Administration so informed shallinvestigate the matter, and may request the other Party to furnish furtheror better evidence of the alleged contravention. If the Administration issatisfied that sufficient evidence is available to enable proceedings tobe brought in respect of the alleged violation, it shall cause suchproceedings to be taken in accordance with its law as soon as possible.The Administration shall promptly inform the Party which has reported thealleged violation. as well as the Organization,  of the action taken.    (5) A Party may also inspect a ship to which the present Conventionapplies when it enters the ports or off-shore terminals under itsjurisdiction, if a request for an investigation is received from any Partytogether with sufficient evidence that the ship has discharged harmfulsubstances or effluents containing such substances in any place. Thereport of such investigation shall be sent to the Party requesting it andto the Administration so that the appropriate action may be taken underthe present Convention.          Article 7 Undue Delay to Ships    (1) All possible efforts shall be made to avoid a ship being undulydetained or delayed under Articles 4, 5 or 6 of the present Convention.    (2) When a ship is unduly detained or delayed under Article 4, 5 or 6of the present Convention, it shall be entitled to compensation for anyloss or damage suffered.          Article 8 Reports on Incidents Involving Harmful Substances    (1) A report of an incident shall be made without delay to the fullestextent possible in accordance with the provisions of Protocol I to thepresent Convention.    (2) Each Party to the Convention shall:        (a) make all arrangements necessary for an appropriate officer oragency to receive and process all reports on incidents; and        (b) notify the Organization with complete details of sucharrangements for circulation to other Parties and Member States of theOrganization.    (3) Whenever a Party receives a report under the provisions of thepresent Article,  that Party shall relay the report without delay to:        (a) the Administration of the ship involved; and        (b) any other State which may be affected.    (4) Each Party to the Convention undertakes to issue instructions toits maritime inspection vessels and aircraft and to other appropriateservices. to report to its authorities any incident referred to inProtocol I to the present convention. That Party shall, if it considers itappropriate, report accordingly to the Organization and to any other partyconcerned.          Article 9 Other Treaties and Interpretation    (1) Upon its entry into force, the present Convention supersedes theInternational Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea byOil, 1954, as amended, as between Parties to that Convention.    (2) Nothing in the present Convention shall prejudice the codificationand development of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference onthe Law of the Sea convened pursuant to Resolution 2750 C (XXV) of theGeneral Assembly of the United Nations nor the present or future claimsand legal views of any State concerning the law of the sea and the natureand extent of coastal and flag State jurisdiction.    (3) The term "jurisdiction" in the present Convention shall beconstrued in the light of international law in force at the time ofapplication or interpretation of the present Convention.          Article 10 Settlement of Disputes    Any dispute between two or more Parties to the Convention concerningthe interpretation or application of the present Convention shall, ifsettlement by negotiation between the Parties involved has not beenpossible, and if these Parties do not otherwise agree, be submitted uponrequest of any of them to arbitration as set out in Protocol II to thepresent Convention.          Article 11 Communication of Information    (1) The Parties to the Convention undertake to communicate to theOrganization:        (a) the text of laws, orders, decrees and regulations and otherinstruments which have been promulgated on the various matters within thescope of the present Convention;        (b) a list of non-governmental agencies which are authorized toact on their behalf in matters relating to the design, construction andequipment of ships carrying harmful substances in accordance with theprovisions of the Regulations;        (c) a sufficient number of specimens of their certificates issuedunder the provisions of the Regulations;        (d) a list of reception facilities including their location,capacity and available facilities and other characteristics;        (e) official reports or summaries of official reports in so far asthey show the results of the application of the present Convention; and        (f) an annual statistical report, in a form standardized by theOrganization, of penalties actually imposed for infringement of thepresent Convention.    (2) The Organization shall notify Parties of the receipt of anycommunications under the present Article and circulate to all Parties anyinformation communicated to it under sub-paragraphs (1) (b) to (f) of thepresent Article.          Article 12 Casualties to ships    (1) Each Administration undertakes to conduct an investigation of anycasualty occurring to any of its ships subject to the provisions of theRegulations if such casualty has produced a major deleterious effect uponthe marine environment.    (2) Each Party to the Convention undertakes to supply the Organizationwith information concerning the findings of such investigation, when itjudges that such information may assist in determining what changes in thepresent Convention might be desirable.          Article 13 Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Ac-cession    (1) The present Convention shall remain open for signature at theHeadquarters of the Organization from January 15, 1974 until December 31,1974 and shall thereafter remain open for accession, States may becomeParties to the present Convention by:        (a) signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptanceor approval: or        (b) signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval,followed by ratification,  acceptance or approval; or        (c) accession.    (2) Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be effectedby the deposit of an instrument to that effect with the Secretary-Generalof the Organization.    (3) The Secretary-General of the Organization shall inform all Stateswhich have signed the present Convention or acceded to it of any signatureor of the deposit of any new instrument of ratification, acceptance,approval or accession and the date of its deposit.          Article 14 Optional Annexes    (1) A State may at the time of signing, ratifying, accepting,approving or acceding to the present Convention declare that it does notaccept any one or all of Annexes III, IV and V (hereinafter referred to as"Optional Annexes") of the present Convention. Subject to the above,Parties to the Convention shall be bound by any Annex in its entirety.    (2) A State which has declared that it is not bound by an OptionalAnnex may at any time accept such Annex by depositing with theOrganization an instrument of the kind referred to in Article 13(2).    (3) A State which makes a declaration under paragraph (1) of thepresent Article in respect of an Optional Annex and which has notsubsequently accepted that Annex in accordance with paragraph (2) of thepresent Article shall not be under any obligation nor entitled to claimany privileges under the present Convention in respect of matters relatedto such Annex and all references to Parties in the present Conventionshall not include that State in so far as matters related to such Annexare concerned.    (4) The Organization shall inform the States which have signed oracceded to the present Convention of any declaration under the presentArticle as well as the receipt of any instrument deposited in accordancewith the provisions of paragraph (2) of the present Article.          Article 15 Entry into Force    (1) The present Convention shall enter into force twelve months afterthe date on which not less than 15 States, the combined merchant fleets ofwhich constitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of theworld\'s merchant shipping, have become parties to it in accordance withArticle 13.    (2) An Optional Annex shall enter into force twelve months after thedate on which the conditions stipulated in paragraph (1) of the presentArticle have been satisfied in relation to that Annex.    (3) The Organization shall inform the States which have signed thepresent Convention or acceded to it of the date on which it enters intoforce and of the date on which an Optional Annex enters into force inaccordance with paragraph (2) of the present Article.    (4) For States which have deposited an instrument of ratification,acceptance, approval or accession in respect of the present Convention orany Optional Annex after the requirements for entry into force there ofhave been met but prior to the date of entry into force,  theratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall take effect on thedate of entry into force of the Convention or such Annex or three monthsafter the date of deposit of the instrument whichever is the later date.    (5) For States which have deposited an instrument of ratification,acceptance, approval or accession after the date on which the Conventionor an Optional Annex entered into force, the Convention or the OptionalAnnex shall become effective three months after the date of deposit of theinstrument.    (6) After the date on which all the conditions required under Article16 to bring an amendment to the present Convention or an Optional Annexinto force have been fulfiled,  any instrument of ratification,acceptance, approval or accession deposited shall apply to the Conventionor Annex as amended.          Article 16 Amendments    (1) The present Convention may be amended by any of the proceduresspecified in the following paragraphs.    (2) Amendments after consideration by the Organization:        (a) any amendment proposed by a Party to the Convention shall besubmitted to the Organization and circulated by its Secretary-General toall Members of the Organization and all Parties at least six months priorto its consideration;        (b) any amendment proposed and circulated as above shall besubmitted to an appropriate body by the Organization for consideration;        (c) Parties to the Convention, whether or not Members of theOrganization, shall be entitled to participate in the proceedings of theappropriate body;        (d) amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of onlythe Parties to the Convention present voting;        (e) if adopted in accordance with sub-paragraph (d) above,amendments shall be communicated by the Secretary-General of theOrganization to all the Parties to the Convention for acceptance;        (f) an amendment shall be deemed to have been accepted in thefollowing circumstances:            (i) an amendment to an Article of the Convention shall bedeemed to have been accepted on the date on which it is accepted bytwo-thirds of the Parties, the combined merchant fleets of whichconstitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of theworld\'s merchant fleet;            (ii) an amendment to an Annex to the Convention shall bedeemed to have been accepted in accordance with the procedure specified insub-paragraph (f)  (iii) unless the appropriate body, at the time of itsadoption, determines that the amendment shall be deemed to have beenaccepted on the date on which it is accepted by two-thirds of the Parties,the combined merchant fleets of which constitute not less than fifty percent of the gross tonnage of the world\'s merchant fleet, Nevertheless, atany time before the entry into force of an amendment to an Annex to theConvention, a Party may notify the Secretary-General of the Organizationthat its express approval will be necessary before the amendment entersinto force for it. The latter shall bring such notification and the dateof its receipt to the notice of Parties;            (iii) an amendement to an Appendix to an Annex to theConvention shall be deemed to have been accepted at the end of a period tobe determined by the appropriate body at the time of its adoption. whichperiod shall be not less than ten months, unless within that period anobjection is communicated to the Organization by not less than one-thirdof the Parties or by the Parties the combined merchant fleets of whichconstitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of theworld\'s merchant fleet whichever condition is fulfilled;            (iv) an amendment to Protocol I to the Convention shall besubject to the same procedures as for the amendments to the Annexes to theConvention, as provided for in sub-paragraphs (f) (ii) or (f) (iii) above;            (v) an amendment to Protocol II to the Convention shall besubject to the same procedures as for the amendments to an Article of theConvention, as provided for in sub-paragraph (f) (i) above;        (g) the amendment shall enter into force under the followingconditions:            (i) in the case of an amendment to an Article of theConvention, to Protocol II. or to Protocol I or to an Annex to theConvention not under the procedure specified in sub-paragraph (f) (iii),the amendment accepted in conformity with the foregoing provisions shallenter into force six months after the date of its acceptance with respectto the Parties which have declared that they have accepted it;            (ii) in the case of an amendment to Protocol I, to an Appendixto an Annex or an Annex to the Convention under the procedure specified insub-paragraph (f) (iii), the amendment deemed to have been accepted inaccordance with the foregoing conditions shall enter into force six monthsafter its acceptance for all the Parties with the exception of thosewhich, before that date, have made a declaration that they do not acceptit or a declaration under sub-paragraph (f) (ii), that their expressapproval is necessary.    (3) Amendment by a Conference:        (a) Upon the request of a Party, concurred in by at leastone-third of the Parties, the Organization shall convene a Conference ofParties to the Convention to consider amendments to the presentConvention.        (b) Every amendment adopted by such a Conference by a two-thirdsmajority of those present and voting of the Parties shall be communicatedby the Secretary-General of the Organization to all Contracting Partiesfor their acceptance.        (c) Unless the Conference decides otherwise, the amendment shallbe deemed to have been accepted and to have entered into force inaccordance with the procedures specified for that purpose in paragraph (2)(f) and (g) above.    (4) (a) In the case of an Amendment to an Optional Annex, a referencein the present Article to a "Party to the Convention" shall be deemed tomean a reference to a Party bound by that Annex.        (b) Any Party which has declined to accept an amendment to anAnnex shall be treated as a non-Party only for the purpose of applicationof that Amendment.    (5) The adoption and entry into force of a new Annex shall be subjectto the same procedures as for the adoption and entry into force of anamendment to an Article of the Convention.    (6) Unless expressly provided otherwise, any amendment to the presentConvention made under this Article, which relates to the structure of aship, shall apply only to ships for which the building contract is placed,or in the absence of a building contract, the keel of which is laid, on orafter the date on which the amendment comes into force.    (7) Any amendment to a Protocol or to an Annex shall relate to thesubstance of that Protocol or Annex and shall be consistent with theArticles of the present Convention.    (8) The Secretary-General of the Organization shall inform all Partiesof any amendments which enter into force under the present Article,together with the date on which each such amendment enters into force.    (9) Any declaration of acceptance or of objection to an amendmentunder the present Article shall be notified in writing to theSecretary-General of the Organization. The latter shall bring suchnotification and the date of its receipt to the notice of the Parities tothe Convention.          Article 17 Promotion of Technical Co-operation    The Parties to the Convention shall promote, in consultation with theOrganization and other international bodies, with assistance andco-ordination by the Executive Director of the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme, support for those Parties which request technical assistancefor:        (a) the training of scientific and technical personnel;        (b) the supply of necessary equipment and facilities for receptionand monitoring;        (c) the facilitation of other measures and arrangements to preventor mitigate pollution of the marine environment by ships; and        (d) the encouragement of research;    Preferably within the countries concerned, so furthering the aims andpurpose of the present Convention.          Article 18 Denunciation    (1) The present Convention or any Optional Annex may be denounced byany Parties to the Convention at any time after the expiry of five yearsfrom the date on which the Convention or such Annex enters into force forthat Party.    (2) Denunciation shall be effected by notification in writing to theSecretary General of the Organization who shall inform all the otherParties of any such notification received and of the date of its receiptas well as the date on which such denunciation takes effect.    (3) A denunciation shall take effect twelve months after receipt ofthe notification of denunciation by the Secretary-General of theOrganization or after the expiry of any other longer period which may beindicated in the notification.          Article 19 Deposit and Registration    (1) The present Convention shall be deposited with theSecretary-General of the Organization who shall transmit certified truecopies thereof to all States which have signed the present Convention oracceded to it.    (2) As soon as the present Convention enters into force, the textshall be transmitted by the Secretary-General of the Organization to theSecretary-General of the United Nations for registration and publication,in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.          Article 20 Languages    The present Convention is established in a single copy in the English,French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic.Official translations in the Arabic,  German, Italian and Japaneselanguages shall be prepared and deposited with the signed original.    IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned* being duly authorized by theirrespective Governments for that purpose have signed the presentConvention.    [* Signatures omitted]    DONE AT LONDON this second day of November, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-three. 
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    发布于:2022-02-09 17:17:42
  • 船员1978年海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约 (STCW公约)
    1978年海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约本公约各缔约国,      本着制订一致同意的海员培训、发证和值班的国际标准,以增进海上人命与财产的安全和保护海洋环境的愿望,      考虑到达到这一目的的最好办法为缔结一项海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约,      现经协议如下:      第一条 公约的一般义务      一、各缔约国承担义务实施本公约及其附则的各项规定,该附则为本公约的组成部分。凡引用本公约时,同时也就是引用该附则。      二、各缔约国承担义务颁布一切必要的法律、法令、命令和规则,并采取一切必要的其它措施,使本公约充分和完全生效,以便从海上人命与财产的安全和保护海洋环境的观点出发,保证船上的海员胜任其职责。      第二条 定 义      除另有明文规定者外,就本公约而言:      一、“缔约国”系指本公约已对之生效的国家;      二、“主管机关”系指船舶有权悬挂其国旗的缔约国政府;      三、“证书”系指由主管机关颁发或经主管机关授权颁发或为主管机关所认可的一种有效文件(不论其名称如何),该文件委派其持有人担任该文件中所指定的或国家规章所规定的职务;      四、“具有了证书的”系指持有恰当的证书;      五、“组织”系指政府间海事协商组织(海协);      六、“秘书长”系指海协组织秘书长;      七、“海船”系指除了在内陆水域中或者遮蔽水域或港章所适用的区域以内或与此两者紧邻的水域中航行的船舶以外的船舶;      八、“渔船”系指用于捕捞鱼类、鲸鱼、海豹、海象或其他海洋生物资源的船舶;      九、“无线电规则”系指附于或被视作附于随时有效的最新国际电信公约的无线电规则。      第三条 适用范围      本公约适用于在有权悬挂缔约国国旗的海船上工作的海员,但在下列船上工作的海员不在此例:      一、军舰、海军辅助舰船或者为国家拥有或营运而只从事于政府的非商业性服务的其他船舶;但是各缔约国应采取无损于其拥有或营运的此类船舶的作业或作业能力的适当措施以保证在此类船上工作的人员,在合理可行的范围内符合本公约的要求;      二、渔船;      三、非营业的游艇;或      四、构造简单的木船。      第四条 资料交流      一、各缔约国应尽速将下述资料送交秘书长:      1. 就本公约范围内各项事宜所颁布的法律、法令、规则及文件的文本;      2. 为根据本公约规定所颁发的每一种证书而设置的学习课程内容和期限的详细情况(如适当时)及其国家的考试和其他要求;      3. 根据本公约规定所颁发的证书足够数量的样本。      二、秘书长应将本条第一款第1项所规定的任何资料的收到情况通知所有缔约国,同时为了第九条和第十条的目的,在承索时,特别应将按本条第一款第2项和第3项所送交的资料提供给这些国家。      第五条 其它条约与解释      一、缔约国之间现行有效的一切以前的关于海员培训、发证和值班标准的条约、公约及协定,在其有效期间,对以下所述应继续完全和充分有效:      1. 不适用于本公约的海员;      2. 适用于本公约的海员但本公约未予明文规定的事项。      二、但是,在这些条约、公约或协定与本公约规定相抵触的方面,各缔约国应对其按这些条约、公约及协定所承担的义务重新予以审查,以保证这些义务与其根据本公约所承担的责任不相抵触。      三、凡本公约中未予明文规定的事项,仍受缔约国法律的约束。      四、本公约的任何规定,均不得损害根据联合国大会C(XXV)第2750号决议召开的联合国海洋法会议对海洋法的编纂和发展,也不得损害任何国家目前和今后就海洋法以及沿海国和船旗国的管辖权的性质和范围所提出的要求和法律上的意见。      第六条 证 书      一、船长、高级船员或一般船员的证书,应颁发给按照本公约附则的相应规定、主管机关满意地认为在服务、年龄、健康、训练、资格和考试各方面都符合要求的应试者。      二、按本条规定发给船长和高级船员的证书,应由发证的主管机关按附则第I/2条规定的形式予以签证。如所用文字不是英文,则该签注应包括有英文译文。      第七条 过渡规定      一、在本公约对某一缔约国生效前,按缔约国法律或无线电规则,对本公约要求具有证书的职位所颁发的适任或职务证书,在本公约对该缔约国生效后,仍应被认为是有效的。      二、本公约对某一缔约国生效后,其主管机关可继续在不超过五年的期间内,按其过去的做法颁发适任证书。就本公约而言,这种证书应被认为是有效的。在这一过渡期间内,这种证书只应颁发给在本公约对该缔约国生效前业已开始在与这种证书有关的船上特定部门内从事海上工作的海员。主管机关应保证对所有其他要求取得证书的应试者均按本公约的规定进行考试和发证。      三、在本公约对某一缔约国生效后两年之内,该缔约国可对在本公约对该缔约国生效前既未持有本公约规定的适当证书,也未持有按该缔约国法律颁发的适任证书的海员,颁发职务证书,但这些海员应:      1. 在本公约对该缔约国生效前的最近七年之内,至少在海上按其所要求取得的职务证书的职位已工作了三年;      2. 已提出其令人满意地执行该项职务的证据;      3. 已使主管机关参照其申请时的年龄认为健康状况、包括视力和听力均属合格。      就本公约而言,根据本款规定颁发的职务证书,应视为等同于根据本公约规定所颁发的证书。      第八条 特 免      一、在特殊需要的情况下,主管机关如认为对人员、财产和环境不致造成危险时,可颁发特免证明,允许某一指明的海员在某一指明的船上,在为期不超过6个月的指定期间内,担任他并未执有适当证书的职位(除有关的无线电规则所规定者外,无线电报务员和无线电话务员不在此例),但是,被发给这种特免证明的人员,应系主管机关满意地认为能安全地充分胜任其所补空缺者。然而,除在不可抗力的情况下外,对船长或轮机长不得给予特免证明,因而在这种情况下所给予的这种证明其期限应尽可能地短。      二、凡给予某职位的特免证明,只应发给适当证明可充任仅比该职务低一级职务的人员。如本公约对该项低一级的职位并无证书要求,则可对主管机关认为其资格和经验显然相当于所要充任的职位的要求的人员颁发特免证明,但是,如果该人并未持有相应的证书,则应通过一个主管机关可接受的考试,以表明这种特免证明的颁发是安全的。此外,主管机关应保证尽速由持有相应证书的人员来充任该项职位。      三、各缔约国应于每年元月一日后,尽速向秘书长送交一份报告,说明一年中间海船所颁发的关于有证书要求的每项职位的特免证明的总数,以及分别说明总吨位在1600吨以上和以下的这些船舶的艘数。      第九条 等 效      一、本公约的规定不应妨碍主管机关保留或采取其它教育和训练的安排,包括涉及专门适应技术上的发展和特种船舶及贸易的水上业务和船上组织的教育和训练的安排,但在船、货航行和技术操作方面,海上服务、知识与效率的水平,应保证并具有至少相当于本公约要求的海上安全程度和防污的效果。      二、应尽早将这种安排的详情报告秘书长,秘书长则应将这种详情通知所有缔约国。      第十条 监 督      一、除第三条所排除的船舶外,船舶在一缔约国的港口时,应受该缔约国正式授权的官员的监督,以核实船上凡公约要求具有证书的海员均持有证书或适当的特免证明。除非有明显的理由认为证书系骗取的或持证人不是该证书原来所发给的本人,否则此类证书应予承认。      二、在根据第一款或附则第I/4条“监督程序”的规定发现任何缺陷时,执行监督的官员应以书面通知该船船长及船旗国的领事或(在无领事时)最近的外交代表或海事管理当局,以便采取适当的措施。这种通知应说明所发现的缺陷的细节,以及该缔约国据以判定这些缺陷对人员、财产和环境危险的理由。      三、在根据第一款的规定执行监督时,如果考虑到船舶的大小和类型以及航程的长短和性质,附则第I/4条第三款中所述的缺陷未能纠正,并经判定这将对人员、财产或环境构成危险时,执行监督的缔约国应采取措施,务使符合这些要求,从而危险得以消除后,才准其开航。关于所采取的行动的实情,应立即报告秘书长。      四、在根据本条执行监督时,应尽量避免使船舶受到不适当的扣留或延误。如果船舶受到这种扣留或延误,则该船对于由此而引起的任何损失或损害,有权要求赔偿。      五、本条规定应根据必要予以施行,以保证不给予有权悬挂非缔约国国旗的船舶以比有权悬挂缔约国国旗的船舶以较为优惠的待遇。      第十一条 促进技术合作      一、本公约缔约国应与本组织协商并在本组织的协助下,促进并支持对下述有技术援助要求的缔约国:      1. 培训行政管理的技术人员;      2. 建立海员培训学校;      3. 供应培训学校的设备与设施;      4. 制订适当的培训计划,包括在海船上的实际训练;      5. 促进提高海员资历的其它措施与安排。      考虑到发展中国家在这方面的特殊需要,这些援助宜以国家、分区或地区为基础,以推进本公约的目的和宗旨。      二、本组织方面,应根据情况与其他国际组织特别是国际劳工组织进行协商或联合,对以上所述作出努力。      第十二条 修 正 案      一、本公约可按下述的任一程序进行修正:      1. 经本组织内审议后的修正:      (1)一缔约国提议的任何修正案,应提交给秘书长,然后由秘书长至少在审议此修正案之前六个月分发给本组织所有会员、所有缔约国及国际劳工组织总干事;      (2)按上述规定提议和周知的任何修正案,应提交给本组织海上安全委员会审议;      (3)缔约国,不论其是否为本组织的会员,均有权参加海上安全委员会对修正案进行审议和通过的会议;      (4)修正案应在按本款第(3)项所规定的扩大的海上安全委员会(以下简称为“海上安全委员会扩大会议”)上,以到会并投票的缔约国的2/3多数通过,但在表决时,至少应有1/3的缔约国出席;      (5)这样通过的修正案,应由秘书长通知所有缔约国,以供接受;      (6)对于条款的修正案,在其为2/3的缔约国接受之日,即应视为已被接受;      (7)对于附则的修正案,在下列情况下,应视为已被接受:      (i)自通知缔约国供其接受之日起满两年时;或      (ii)在海上安全委员会扩大会议上通过该修正      案时经到会并投票的缔约国2/3多数所确定的      另一期限届满时,但这一期限不得少于一年;      但是,如果在规定的期间内,有1/3以上的缔约国,或其商船总和不少于世界100总登记吨及100总登记吨以上的商船总吨位的50%的缔约国,通知秘书长反对该修正案,则该修正案应视为未被接受;      (8)对条款的修正案,对已接受该修正案的各缔约国,应在其视为已被接受之后经过六个月生效;对在该修正案被视为接受之日后接受该修正案的每一缔约国,则应在该缔约国接受之日后经过六个月生效;      (9)对附则的修正案,应在其视为已被接受之日后过六个月对所有缔约国生效,但按第1项第(7)目的规定对该修正案提出过反对且未曾撤销该项反对的缔约国除外。在规定的生效日期之前,任何缔约国可通知秘书长,在该修正案生效之日起不超过一年的期间内,或在海上安全委员会扩大会议通过该修正案时经到会并投票的缔约国的2/3多数确定的较此为长的期间内,该缔约国免于实施该修正案。      2. 会议修正:      (1)应一个缔约国的请求,并至少有1/3缔约国的同意,本组织应与国际劳工组织总干事联合或与之协商召开一次缔约国会议来审议对本公约的修正案;      (2)凡由这种会议以到会并投票的缔约国的2/3多数通过的修正案,应由秘书长通知所有缔约国,以供接受;      (3)除会议另有决定外,该修正案应分别按第1项第(6)目和第(8)目或第1项第(7)目和第(9)目中所规定的程序视为已被接受和生效,但这些项目中所提到的海上安全委员会扩大会议应被认为是指的缔约国政府会议。      二、对于一项修正案的任何接受或反对的声明,或根据第一款第1项第(9)目所作的任何通知,均应以书面提交给秘书长。秘书长应将此类文件的提交及其收到日期通知所有缔约国。      三、秘书长应将任何生效的修正案连同每项这种修正案的生效日期通知所有缔约国。      第十三条 签字、批准、接受、核准和加入      一、本公约自1978年12月1日起至1979年11月30日止,在本组织总部开放供签字,此后应继续开放供加入。任何国家可按下列方式参加本公约:      1. 签字而对批准、接受或核准无保留;或      2. 签字而有待批准、接受或核准,随后再予批准、接受或核准;      3. 加入。      二、批准、接受、核准或加入,应向秘书长交存一份相应的文件。      三、秘书长应将任何签字,或关于批准、接受、核准或加入的任何文件的交存及其交存日期,通知已签字或已加入本公约的所有国家和国际劳工组织总干事。      第十四条 生 效      一、本公约应在至少有25个国家,其商船总和不少于全世界100总登记吨及100总登记吨以上的商船总吨的50%,按第十三条已签字而对批准、接受或核准无保留,或已交存所需的关于批准、接受、核准或加入的文件之后,经过12个月生效。      二、秘书长应将本公约的生效日期通知所有已签字或已加入本公约的国家。      三、凡在第1款所述的12个月的期间内交存的批准、接受、核准或加入的文件,应在本公约生效之日生效,或在交存上述文件之日起过三个月生效,以较晚者为准。      四、凡在本公约生效之日后交存的批准、接受、核准或加入的文件,应在交存之日后经过三个月生效。      五、在修正案根据第十二条规定视为已被接受之日后交存的任何批准、接受、核准或加入的文件,应适用于修正后的公约。      第十五条 退 出      一、任何缔约国,在本公约对其生效满五年后,可随时退出本公约。      二、退出本公约应以书面通知秘书长。秘书长应将收到的任何这种通知和收到日期以及退出的生效日期,通知所有其他缔约国和国际劳工组织总干事。      三、退出本公约应在秘书长收到退出通知一年后,或该通知中所载明的任何较此为长的期限届满后生效。      第十六条 保管和登记      一、本公约应交由秘书长保管,秘书长应将核证无误的本公约副本分发所有已签字或已加入本公约的国家。      二、本公约一经生效,秘书长应即按照联合国宪章第一百零二条的规定,将本公约文本送联合国秘书长登记并公布。      第十七条 文 字      本公约正本一份,用中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文写成,各种文本具有同等效力。应准备有阿拉伯文、德文的正式译本,与签署的正本一并存放。      下列具名的经各自政府授权的代表,特签署本公约,以昭信守。      1978年7月7日订于伦敦。      附则           第一章 总 则      规则I/1 定 义      除另有明文规定者外,就本公约而言:      1. “规则”系指公约附件中的规则;      2. “认可”系指主管机关的认可;      3. “船长”系指指挥一条船的人;      4. “高级船员”系指船长以外的由国家法律或规则所指派或在没有这种指派时,由集体协议或习惯法指派的任一船员;      5. “驾驶员”系指甲板部合格的高级船员;      6. “大副”系指级别仅低于船长的驾驶员,并在船长不能工作时由其指挥船舶;      7. “轮机员”系指轮机部的合格的高级船员;      8. “轮机长”系指负责船舶机械推进职能的高级轮机员;      9. “大管轮”系指级别仅低于轮机长的轮机员,并在轮机长不能工作时由其负责船舶的机械推进;      10. “助理轮机员”系指正在培训并将由国家法律或规则指派为轮机员的人;      11. “电报员”系指持有一级或二级无线电报员证书或持有按无线电规则规定颁发的水上行动业务无线电通讯报务员一般证书的人,他在国际海上人命安全公约所要求的船上无线电台工作;      12. “无线电话务员”系指持有按无线电规则规定颁发的适当的证书者;      13. “一般船员”系指船长或高级船员以外的船员;      14. “近岸航行”系指缔约国规定的在其附近的航行;      15. “推进动力”系指船舶登记证书或其它官方文件上出现的以千瓦计的功率;      16. “无线电职责”包括(如为适当时),根据无线电规则、国际海上人命安全公约及由各主管机关自行决定的有关海协建议案中的值班和技术保养及修理;      17. “油轮”系指建造成和应用于运载散装石油和石油产品的船舶;      18. “化学品船”系指建造成和应用于运载海协“运载散装危险化学品船舶的构造和设备规则”中所列的任何散装液体化学品的船舶;      19. “液化气体船”系指建造成和应用于运载海协“运载散装液化气船舶的构造和设备规则”中所列的任何液化气体的船舶。      规则I/2 证书的内容和签证的格式      一、证书必须用官方语言或发证国语言。如使用的语言不是英语,必须包括英语译文。      二、关于电报员和无线电话务员,主管机关可:      1. 包括为签发符合无线电规则要求的证书而举行的考试中所要求的本公约附件有关规则的附加知识;或      2. 颁发一张单独的证书,指明证书持有者具有公约附件中所要求的附加知识。      三、公约第六条所要求的证书签证格式须按下列形式:              证书签证形式              -------                证书的签证(公章)                            (国家)    根据1978年海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约规定发给          二者选一  (××)政府证明                      本人(以下签字者)证明    现证书/证书编号:___,发给×××(姓名),    按1978年海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约××规则规定,完全有资格作为________,仅有下列局限:此处填局限)______  或      )_____填“无”)_____(如为适当时)本签证签发日期:______(公章)                    签字_____              (正式授权之官员姓名和签字)持证人出生日期:_______持证人签字:_______          规则I/3 有关近岸航行的原则      1. 就本公约而言,任何规定近岸航行的缔约国不得将培训、经验或发证方面的要求强加于在悬挂另一缔约国国旗并从事此类航行的船上服务的海员,以造成对这些船员的要求比在悬挂自己国旗的船上服务的海员更为严格的情况。在任何情况下,此缔约国不得把超过公约中有关从事非近岸航行船舶的要求,强加于在悬挂另一缔约国国旗船上服务的海员。      2. 对于悬挂缔约国国旗、航行于另一缔约国海岸附近的定期近岸航行的船舶,其船旗国须为在此种船上服务的海员规定至少相当于船舶所航经的缔约国的培训、经验和发证要求,但这些要求不能超过公约对于非近岸航行的船舶的要求。航行超出一缔约国所规定的近岸航行并进入定义未涉及水域的船舶,须履行公约的要求,不得因本条规定而有所放宽。      3. 一缔约国可对有权悬挂其国旗的船舶,在其定期的另一非缔约国海岸附近从事近岸航行时,给予本公约有关近岸航行规定的利益。      4. 本规则中的内容在任何情况下都不得限制任何国家的管辖权,不论其是否为缔约国。      规则I/4 监督程序      一、一个正式授权的监督官员按第十条规定行使的监督应限于下述方面:      1. 按第十条第一款规定核实所有在船上服务而公约又要求发证的海员都持有有效的证书或有效的特免证明;      2. 如果因在一缔约国港内或进入该港时发生了下列情况而有理由认为未能维持值班标准时,判断公约所要求的船上海员维持值班标准的能力情况:      (1)船舶发生碰撞、搁浅或触礁;或      (2)船舶在航行、锚泊或靠泊时从船上排放按国际公约规定为非法物质;或      (3)船舶操作不稳定或不安全或未按航向标志或分道通航制航行。      二、在按第一款采取的监督活动中发现下列缺陷时,监督官员应按第十条规定,向船长和船旗国相应的代表提出书面情况:      1. 海员不持有所要求的适当有效的证书或有效的特免证明;      2. 未按船旗国规定要求作航海或轮机值班安排;      3. 值班中无合格人员操作对安全航行或防污染至为必要的设备;      4. 船长在一个航次开始时的值班和其后的接班中未能提供休息好的人员。      三、未能纠正第二款第1项中所涉缺陷--有关船长、轮机长和负责航行和轮机值班的高级船员以及(如有关时)电报员的证书问题,以及第二款第2项有关问题,这些将构成一缔约国按第十条规定扣留船舶的唯一依据。      第二章 船长——甲板部      规则Ⅱ/1 航行值班中应遵守的基本原则      一、缔约国应指示船舶所有人、船舶营运人、船长和值班人员遵守下列原则,以确保在任何时候均能保持安全航行值班。      二、每艘船舶的船长,必须确保值班的安排适于保持安全航行值班。在船长的统一指挥下,值班驾驶员在他们的值班期间,特别是在关系到避免碰撞和搁浅时,负责船舶的安全航行。      三、所有船舶必须考虑包括下列、但不限于下列的基本原则。      四、值班安排      1. 值班编制在任何时候都必须充分和适应当时的环境和情况,并必须考虑保持正规了望的必要。      2. 在决定可能包括合适的甲板部一般船员在内的驾驶台值班编制时,尤其应考虑下列因素:      (1)在任何时候,驾驶台不许无人看管;      (2)天气情况、能见度、白天和黑夜;      (3)临近航行上的危险时,可能需要负责值班的驾驶员执行额外的航行职责;      (4)助航仪器,如雷达或电子定位仪以及其它影响船舶安全航行的设备的使用和操作条件;      (5)船上是否装有自动操舵装置;      (6)由于特殊的操作环境可能产生对航行值班的特别要求。      五、对职责的适任      值班制度应使值班驾驶员和值班船员的工作效率,不因疲劳而受影响。值班人员的编排务使航行开始时的第一班及其后的接班人员都能得到充分休息,或使其适任职责即可。      六、航行      1. 对预定的航次,应在研究一切有关资料后事先计划,并在启航前对制定的航线进行核对。      2. 在值班期间,应使用船上的一切助航仪器,对所驶的航向、船位和航速,通过足够频繁的间隔进行核对,以确保本船沿着计划航线行驶。      3. 值班驾驶员应充分了解船上所有安全和航行设备的放置地点和操作方法,并应注意到和考虑到这些设备操作上的局限性。      4. 负责航行值班的驾驶员,不应被分配或担负任何妨碍船舶安全航行的职责。      七、航行设备      1. 值班驾驶员应最有效地使用在他支配之下的所有航行设备。      2. 在使用雷达时,值班驾驶员必须记住,在任何时候都必须遵守适用的海上避碰规则中所载的有关使用雷达的规定。      3. 在需要时,值班驾驶员应毫不犹豫地使用舵、主机和音响信号装置。      八、航行职责      1. 负责值班的驾驶员应:      (1)在驾驶台坚持值班,在正式交班之前,无论如何都不得离开驾驶台;      (2)继续对船舶的安全航行负责,即使船长在驾驶台,直到船长明确地通知他,船长已承担责任并彼此领会时;      (3)在为了安全而采取某种行动发生疑问时通知船长;      (4)不向接班驾驶员交班,如果他有理由相信接班驾驶员显然不能有效地履行其职责,在这种情况下,必须据情通知船长。      2. 接班驾驶员接班时,应对本船的估计船位或真船位情况表示满意,并证实预定的航迹、航向和航速,还应注意在他值班期间预期可能遇到的任何航行危险。      3. 在值班期间,有关本船航行的动态和活动,应作恰当的记录。      九、了望      除了为充分判断碰撞、搁浅和其它危害航行安全的危险和情况而保持正规了望外,了望人员的职责还应包括发现遇难的船舶和飞机、船舶遇难人员、沉船和碎片。在执行了望时,应遵守下列各项:      1. 为保持正规了望,了望应集中精力,并不应承担或被分配给会妨碍本工作的其他职责;      2. 了望人员和舵工的职责是分开的。舵工在操舵时不应被视作为了望人员,但在小船上,能在操舵位置上无阻碍地看到周围情况,且不存在夜里视力的减损和执行正规了望的其它障碍时除外。在白天,如在下列各种情况下,负责值班的驾驶员可以是唯一的了望人员:      (1)已对处境仔细估量,并确信此种做法是安全的;      (2)已对包括下列但不限于下列的所有因素作了充分考虑:      ——天气情况      ——能见度      ——通航密度      ——临近的航行危险      ——当航行在或接近于分道通航制区域时必要的注意;      (3)当情况发生变化而需要协助时,协助人员能立即应召至驾驶台。      十、有引航员在船时的航行      尽管引航员有其职责和义务,他在船上引航并不解除船长或负责值班的驾驶员对船舶安全所负的职责和义务。船长和引航员应交换有关航行方法、当地情况和船舶性能等情况。船长和值班驾驶员应与引航员紧密合作,并保持正确的船舶船位和动态。      十一、保护海上环境      船长和负责值班的驾驶员,应了解由于操作不当或意外事故对海上环境污染的严重后果,并应采取一切可能的预防措施,特别应采取有关国际规则和港规规定的预防措施,以防止这类污染。      规则Ⅱ/2 对200总登记吨或以上的船舶的船长和大副发证的法定最低要求      对1600总登记吨或以上船舶的船长和大副      一、每个1600总登记吨或以上的海船的船长和大副都应持有相应的证书。      二、每个申请发证的应试者应:      1. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力和听力;      2. 符合在200总登记吨或以上的船舶上负责航行值班的驾驶员的发证要求,并已对该职位具有被认可的海上服务经历:      (1)大副证书,不少于18个月;但是,如果主管机关要求特殊培训,而此种培训被视作至少相当于六个月的负责航行值班驾驶员的服务经历的话,则此段时间,可以缩减为不少于12个月;      (2)船长证书,不少于36个月,但是,如果他已具有不少于12个月的大副海上经历,或如主管机关要求可被视为等同于此种海上经历的特殊培训的话,则此段时间可以缩减为不少于24个月。      3. 已通过使主管机关满意的相应考试。这种考试必须包括本规则附则中规定的材料,除非主管机关认为需要时,才可改变对吨位有限、从事近岸航行船舶的船长和大副的考试要求,但应注意对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响。      对200至1600总登记吨船舶的船长和大副      三、200至1600总登记吨海船的每个船长和大副都应持有相应的证书。      四、每个申请发证的应试者应:      1. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力和听力;      2. (1)大副证书,符合200总登记吨或以上船舶负责航行值班的驾驶员的发证要求;      (2)船长证书,符合200总登记吨或以上船舶负责航行值班的驾驶员的发证要求,并对该职位具有被认可的不少于36个月的海上经历;但是,如果他已具有不少于12个月的大副海上经历,或如主管机关要求被视作等同于此种海上经历的特殊培训的话,则此段时间可以缩减为不少于24个月。      3. 已通过使主管机关满意的相应的考试。这种考试必须包括附则中规定的材料,除非主管机关认为合适时,才可改变对从事近岸航行船舶的船长和大副的考试要求,去掉那些不适用于有关水域或船舶的材料,但应注意对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响。通则      五、在本附则各标题下,所要求的知识水准,可按证书是否发给船长或大副,或证书是否适用于1600总登记吨及以上的船舶还是200至1600总登记吨之间的船舶而有所不同。      规则Ⅱ/2附则 对200总登记吨或以上的船舶的船长和大副发证的最低知识要求      一、下列纲要是为报考200总登记吨或以上的船舶的船长或大副证书的应试者而编制的。纲要意在扩大和深化规则Ⅱ/4《对200总登记吨或以上的船舶负责航行值班的驾驶员发证的法定最低要求》内包含的课题。意识到船长对于船舶、旅客、船员和货物的安全负有最高责任,而大副则处于随时承担这种责任的地位,因此,对这些课题的考试是为了考查他们对影响船舶安全的所有情况的融会贯通的能力。      二、航行和定位      1. 航次计划和在各种条件下的航行:      (1)以公认的方法画出远洋航线;      (2)在受限制的水域内;      (3)在冰区;      (4)在能见度不良时;      (5)在分道通航制区域内;      (6)在大的潮汐影响区域内。      2. 定位:      (1)包括利用太阳、恒星、月亮和行星的天体观测;      (2)地文观测,包括通过相应的海图、航海通告和其他航海书籍,结合利用陆标方位及诸如灯塔、航标和浮标等助航设备的能力,以判断最终所得船位的正确性;      (3)在使用一切现代船舶的电子助航仪器方面,使主管机关满意,尤应扩大对这些仪器的操作原理、局限性、误差来源、误传信息的探测和校正方法等的知识面,以获得正确的船位。      三、值班      1. 表明对国际海上避碰规则的内容、应用及其意图,包括附件中有关安全航行方面所具备的全面知识;      2. 表明对规则Ⅱ/1《航行值班中应遵守的基本原则》所具备的知识。      四、雷达设备      结合雷达模拟器的使用,或无此种设备时,结合运动图的使用,表明对雷达的基本原理和操作与使用雷达的能力,以及理解和分析由此设备获得的信息方面所具备的知识,包括:      1. 影响性能和精确度的因素;      2. 调定和保持显示;      3. 误传信息的测试、假回波、海面回波等;      4. 距离和方位;      5. 危险回波的鉴别;      6. 他船的航向和航速;      7. 交叉、对遇或追越船的最接近点的时间和距离;      8. 他船航向和航速变化的推断;      9. 本船航向或航速,或二者兼具的变化所产生的影响;      10. 国际海上避碰规则的应用。      五、罗经、磁罗经和电罗经      具有测定和校正磁罗经和电罗经误差的能力,以及校正这种误差方法的知识。      六、气象学和海洋学      1. 表明在考虑了当地天气的情况下,理解和解释天气图和预测地区天气的能力;      2. 具有各种天气体系特性的知识,包括热带飓风及避开风暴中心和危险象限的知识;      3. 具有洋流系统的知识;      4. 具有使用一切有关潮汐和海流的相应航海书籍的能力,包括英文版本;      5. 具有计算潮汐情况的能力。      七、船舶操纵      在各种情况下操纵船舶,包括下列情况:      1. 在接近引航船或引航站时的船舶操纵,特别注意天气、潮汐、淌航距离和冲距等情况;      2. 在河道及江河口等处操纵船舶时,注意风流和限制的水域对舵效的影响;      3. 浅水中的船舶操纵,包括由于船体下坐、横摇、纵摇的影响而减少龙骨下的富裕水深;      4. 在两船会航和船与近岸间的相互作用(运河效应);      5. 在各种不同的风流条件下,用或不用拖轮靠离泊位;      6. 锚地选择:在有限锚地内,使用单锚或双锚锚泊以及决定使用锚链长度的有关因素;      7. 走锚:清解绞缠的锚链;      8. 进干船坞,包括有损坏和无损坏;      9. 在恶劣天气下的船舶管理和操纵,包括救助遇难船舶或飞机,进行拖带作业,使失控船舶脱离波谷的方法,减少漂流和镇浪撒油等;      10. 在恶劣天气下,施放救生艇或救生筏时船舶操纵的注意事项;      11. 从救生艇和救生筏上将遇难人员救上船的方法;      12. 具有确定主要类型船舶的操纵和主机特性的能力,特别注意船舶在各种吃水和速度下的冲程和旋回圈;      13. 以减速航行避免因本船的艏艉波所造成浪损的重要性;      14. 当航行于冰区或船上积冰的情况下,应采取的切实可行的办法;      15. 分道通航制的使用和在分道通航制区域内的船舶操纵。      八、船舶稳性构造和波损控制      1. 了解船舶构造的基本原理和影响纵倾和稳性的理论和因素,以及保持安全纵倾和稳性的必要措施;      2. 在一舱受损并因而浸水时影响船舶纵倾和稳性的知识以及应采取的对策;      3. 表明对稳性、纵倾和强度图表以及强度计算仪器的使用,包括为了使船体强度保持在容许限度内的装货和压载方面的知识;      4. 船舶主要构件的一般知识和各种部件的正规名称;      5. 海协有关船舶稳性建议案的知识。      九、船舶动力装置      1. 船用动力装置的工作原理;      2. 船舶辅机;      3. 船用轮机术语的一般知识。      十、货物装卸和积载      1. 船上货物的积载和绑扎,包括起货设备;      2. 装卸作业,特别注意重件货物的装卸;      3. 有关货物运输的国际规则和建议案,特别是国际海上危险品运输规则(IMDG);      4. 危险货物的运输。装卸作业过程中应采取的预防措施和航行中对危险货物的注意事项;      5. 现行有关油轮安全指导准则的内容和应用的实际工作知识;      6. 通常使用的货油管系和泵系布置的实际工作知识;      7. 用于说明一般货油如原油、中质油、挥发油等特性的术语和定义;      8. 防污染规则:压载、洗舱和消除油气作业;      9. 污油上装油程序。      十一、防火和消防设备      1. 消防演习的组织;      2. 火灾的种类及其化学性质;      3. 灭火系统;      4. 参加认可的消防课程;      5. 有关消防设备规则的知识。      十二、应急措施      1. 船舶抢滩时注意事项;      2. 搁浅前后应采取的措施;      3. 在有援助或无援助时起浮搁浅船舶;      4. 碰撞后应采取的措施;      5. 渗漏的临时堵塞;      6. 在紧急情况下,旅客和船员的保护及安全的措施;      7. 船舶在发生火灾或爆炸后损害的控制及救护;      8. 弃船;      9. 应急舵的紧急操作、装配和使用,以及在实际可行时装配应急舵的方法;      10. 从遇难船或沉船上救人;      11. 救助落水人员的方法。      十三、医护      具有使用下列书籍内容的全面知识:      1. 船用国际医疗指南或国内出版的类似书籍;      2. 国际信号规则中的医疗部分;      3. 用于危险品事故医疗急救指南。      十四、海法      1. 国际协议和公约中包括的有关国际海洋法的知识,因为它们涉及船长的特殊义务和职责,尤其涉及其关于安全和保护海上环境方面的特殊义务和职责。尤应注意下列各项:      (1)国际公约要求随船携带的证书或其它文件,如何取得这些证件以及这些证件的法定有效期限;      (2)国际载重线公约有关要求的职责;      (3)国际海上人命安全公约有关要求的职责;      (4)国际防止船舶造成污染公约要求的职责;      (5)航海健康申明书,国际健康规则的要求;      (6)关于国际海上避碰规则公约要求的职责;      (7)其它影响船舶、旅客、船员和货物安全的国际文件所要求的职责。      2. 国家海上法律的知识程度由主管机关确定,但当包括实施国际协定和公约的国内安排。      十五、人事管理及培训职责      船上人事管理、组织和培训的知识。      十六、通信      1. 用摩斯灯收发信息和使用国际信号规则的能力;如果应试者在取得较低级别证书时,主管机关已考过他们这些课题,则当他们在报考船长证书时,可有免试的选择。      2. 无线电话通信使用程序的知识和使用无线电话的能力、特别是使用有关遇险、紧急、安全和航行的信息方面的能力。      3. 无线电规则规定的无线电报应急遇险信号程序知识。      十七、救生      具有救生设备规则(国际海上人命安全公约)、组织弃船演习、救生艇、救生筏及其它救生设备的全面知识。      十八、搜索和救助      具有海协《商船搜寻救生手册》中的全面知识。      十九、表明熟习业务的方法      1. 航行      表明对六分仪、哑罗经和方位仪的使用以及描绘船位、航向、方位等能力。      2. 国际海上避碰规则      (1)利用小模型显示恰当信号或灯号或航行灯模拟器;      (2)运动图或雷达模拟器。      3. 雷达      (1)雷达模拟器;或      (2)运动图      4. 消防      参加认可的消防课程。      5. 通信      视觉和听觉的实际测验。      6. 救生      救生艇和其它救生设备的放落和操纵,包括救生衣的穿着。      规则Ⅱ/3 对200总登记吨以下的船舶的船长和负责航行值班的驾驶员发证的法定最低要求      一、不从事近岸航行的船舶      1. 每个在200总登记吨以下不从事近岸航行的海船上服务的船长应持有为主管机关认可的200至1600总登记吨船舶的船长证书。      2. 每个在200总登记吨以下不从事近岸航行的海船上服务的负责航行值班的驾驶员应持有200总登记吨或以上船舶的相应证书。      二、从事近岸航行的船舶      1. 船长      (1)每个在200总登记吨以下从事近岸航行的海船上服务的船长应持有相应的证书。      (2)每个申请发证的应试者应:      (i)年龄不小于20岁;      (ii)具有被认可的负责航行值班驾驶员不少于12个月的海上经历并使主管机关满意,具有在有关船上相应于他职责的足够知识,这些知识应包括本规则附则中所列的内容。      2. 负责航行值班的驾驶员      (1)每个在200总登记吨以下从事近岸航行的海船上负责航行值班的驾驶员,必须持有相应的证书。      (2)每个申请发证的应试者应:      (i)年龄不小于18岁;      (ii)符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力和      听力;      (iii)使主管机关满意,他已:      ——成功地经过专门培训,包括主管机关      所要求的相应的海上服务的足够期限;或      者      ——完成被认可的不少于三年在甲板部工      作的海上经历;      (iv)使主管机关满意具有在有关船上相应于他      职责的足够知识,这些知识包括在附则中      所列的内容。      三、培训      为了完成必要知识和实际经验的培训,必须以规则Ⅱ/1--《航行值班中应遵守的基本原则》和有关国际规则和建议案为基础。      四、免除      主管机关如果认为某一船舶的大小及其航行的条件会使适用于本规则及其附则的全部要求成为不合理或不切实可行时,则可免除对这种船舶或这种船级的船长或负责航行值班驾驶员的某些要求,但应注意对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响。      规则Ⅱ/3附则 对200总登记吨以下的船舶船长和负责航行值班的驾驶员发证的最低知识要求      一、1. 具有下列知识:      (1)沿海航行并在其要求范围内的天文航海;      (2)国际海上避碰规则;      (3)国际海上危险品规则(IMDG);      (4)磁罗经;      (5)无线电话及视觉信号;      (6)防火和消防设备;      (7)救生;      (8)应急措施;      (9)船舶操纵;      (10)船舶稳性;      (11)气象;      (12)小船动力装置;      (13)急救;      (14)搜索和救助;      (15)防止海上环境的污染。      2. 除第1项所列的要求外,还应具有安全地操作装在有关船上的所有助航仪器和设备的足够知识。      3. 对第1项和第2项中具体规定所要求的知识水平,应足以使值班驾驶员能安全地执行其职责。      二、每个在200总登记吨以下海船上服务的船长,除上述第一款规定的要求以外,还应在具备安全地执行其船长的全部职责的知识方面使主管机关满意。      规则Ⅱ/4 对200总登记吨或以上的船舶负责航行值班的驾驶员发证的法定最低要求      一、每个在200总登记吨或以上海船上服务的负责航行值班的驾驶员,必须持有相应的证书。      二、每个申请发证的应试者应:      1. 年龄不小于18岁;      2. 符合主管机关的体检要求,特别是视力和听力;      3. 具有在甲板部工作不少于三年的认可的海上经历。这段时间应包括在合格驾驶员监督下在驾驶台值班至少六个月的期限;但是,主管机关可以允许以一个特殊培训期限代替不超过二年认可的海上经历,只要该主管机关认为该项培训至少能等同于它所替代的海上经历;      4. 通过相应的考试使主管机关确信他具有与其职责相适应的足够的理论和实践知识。      三、无限航区证书      为颁发无限航区证书而举行的考试,应考核应试者在本规则附则中所列内容方面是否具有足够的理论和实践知识。      四、有限航区证书      为颁发限于近岸航行的证书,主管机关可以删去附则中的下列内容,但应注意对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响:      1. 天文航海;      2. 用电子系统定位以及在无此系统覆盖的水域中的航行。      五、知识水平      1. 本附则所列内容所要求的知识水平应足以使值班驾驶员能安全地执行其值班职责。主管机关在决定相适应的知识水平时,应考虑附则中每一内容的说明。      2. 为了完成必要的理论知识和实际经验的培训工作,应以规则Ⅱ/1《航行值班中应遵守的基本原则》和有关国际规则及建议案为基础。      规则Ⅱ/4附则 对200总登记吨或以上的船舶负责航行值班的驾驶员发证的最 低知识要求      一、天文航海      使用天体确定船位和罗经差的能力。      二、地文和沿海岸航海      1. 使用下列各项确定船位的能力:      (1)陆标;      (2)灯塔、航标和浮标等助航标志;      (3)考虑风、潮汐、水流和按推进器每分钟转数和按计程仪得到的航速以推算船位。      2. 对海图和航海书籍,诸如航路指南、潮汐表、航行通告、无线电航行警告和船舶航路资料等的全面知识和使用能力。      三、雷达导航      雷达的基本知识、操作和使用雷达的能力以及理解和分析由雷达获得的信息的能力,包括下列各项:      1. 影响性能和精确度的因素;      2. 调定和保持显示;      3. 误传信息的测试,假回波、海面回波等;      4. 距离和方位;      5. 危险回波的鉴别;      6. 他船的航向和速度;      7. 交叉、对遇或追越船的最接近点的时间和距离;      8. 他船航向和航速变化的推断;      9. 本船航向或航速或二者兼具的变化所产生的影响;      10. 国际海上避碰规则的应用。      四、值班      1、表明对国际海上避碰规则的内容应用及其意图,包括附件中有关安全航行方面所具备的全面知识。      2. 表明对规则Ⅱ/1《航行值班中应遵守的基本原则》所具备的知识。      五、定位和导航电子系统      具有使用电子导航仪器确定船位的能力并使主管机关满意。      六、无线电测向仪和回声测深仪      具有正确地操作这些设备和应用所得资料的能力。      七、气象学      具有船用气象仪器和使用这些仪器的知识。各种天气系统的特性,报告程序和记录系统的知识以及运用所据有的气象资料的能力。      八、罗经——磁罗经和电罗经      具有磁罗经和电罗经原理、包括其误差及修正方面的知识。关于电罗经,了解在主罗经控制下的每个系统以及主要类型电罗经的操作和注意事项方面的知识。      九、自动操舵      具有自动操舵系统和程序的知识。      十、无线电话和视觉信号      1. 用摩斯灯收发信息的能力;      2. 使用国际信号规则的能力;      3. 无线电话通信使用程序的知识和使用无线电话,特别是有关遇险、紧急、安全和航行的信息方面的能力。      十一、防火和消防设备      1. 组织消防演习的能力;      2. 火灾的种类及其化学性质方面的知识;      3. 消防系统的知识;      4. 参加认可的消防课程。      十二、救生      组织弃船演习的能力和操作救生艇、救生筏、救生浮具及其属具,包括手提式无线电装置和无线电应急示位标等方面的知识。海上救生技术的知识。      十三、应急措施      国际劳工组织/海协《指导文件》最新版相应附则中所列项目方面的知识。      十四、船舶操纵      具有下列知识:      1. 不同载重量、吃水、纵倾、航速和龙骨下的水深对旋回圈和冲程的影响;      2. 风、流对船舶操作的影响;      3. 救助落水人员的操纵;      4. 船体下坐、浅水和类似影响;      5. 抛锚和带缆的恰当方法。      十五、船舶稳性      1. 具有对稳性、纵倾和强度图表和强度计算仪器的应用和操作方面的实际知识;      2. 懂得一旦丧失部分完整浮力时应采取的基本行动。      十六、英语      足够的英语知识能使驾驶员使用海图和其他航用书籍,了解气象资料和有关船舶安全和操作的信息,并能在和他船或岸台通信中清楚地表达意思。具有了解和使用海协编制的标准航海用语。      十七、船舶构造      船舶主要构件的一般知识和各种部件的正规名称。      十八、货物装卸和积载      货物的安全装卸和积载的知识及这些因素对船舶安全的影响。      十九、医疗救护      医疗指南和无线电指导的实际应用,包括根据这种知识在船上可能发生事故和疾病时采取有效行动的能力。      二十、搜索和救助      具有海协《商船搜寻救生手册》所叙述的知识。      二十一、防止海上环境的污染      防止海上环境污染应遵守的预防措施方面的知识。      规则Ⅱ/5 为确保船长和驾驶员不断精通业务和掌握最新知识的法定最低要求      一、每个在海上服务或在岸上一段时间后意欲重返海上服务的持有证书的船长和驾驶员,为了继续适于海上服务,要求他在不超过五年的间隔中,符合主管机关的下列要求:      1. 体检合格,特别是视力和听力;和      2. 专业能力      (1)在前五年期间,至少具有一年认可的船长或驾驶员的海上经历;或      (2)已完成有关相适应于其所持证书级别职责的职能,而此职能是视为至少等同于第一款第2项第(1)目中所要求的海上经历;或      (3)具有下列各项之一      ——通过认可的考核;或      ——成功地完成了一门认可的课程或几门课程;或      ——在他担任证书上所授与的职务之前,已在      作为编外驾驶员职务上具有不少于三个月      的认可的海上经历。      二、主管机关应与有关方面协商,为在海上工作,特别是重新上船工作的船长及驾驶员制定或促进一项进修课程和最新课程的设置,按情况既可自愿参加亦可强制参加。主管机关必须确保所作的安排能使所有有关人员参加与他们的经验和职责相适应的这些课程。这些课程应由主管机关认可,并应包括航海技术和有关海上人命安全和海上环境保护的国际规则及建议案的变动。      三、为了继续在船上从事国际上同意的需经特殊培训的海上工作,每个船长和驾驶员都应成功地完成一项认可的有关培训。      四、主管机关应确保在其管辖的船舶获得有关海上人命安全和海上环境保护的国际规则的最新修订文本。      五、一个海员如果在本规则被主管机关批准实施之前的五年中有不少于一年的时间在甲板部工作,他即可被主管机关认为已符合本规则要求。      规则Ⅱ/6 对组成航行值班部分的一般船员的法定最低要求      一、下述第二款规定了200总登记吨或以上海船上组成航行值班部分的一般船员的要求,这些要求既不是为一水发证规定的要求《除大水有限的船舶外),也不是对成为航行值班中唯一的一般船员所规定的要求。主管机关对于成为航行值班中唯一的一般船员可以提出附加的培训和资格方面的要求。      二、凡组成200总登记吨或以上海船航行值班部分的一般船员,应:      1. 年龄不小于16岁;      2. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力和听力;      3. 使主管机关满意,他已:      (1)具有认可的海上经历,包括不少于六个月的、特别与航行值班职责相关的海上经验,或      (2)成功地在上船前或在船上经过了特殊培训,包括主管机关所要求的不少于两个月的足够的海上经历。      4. 具有包括下列各项的经验或训练:      (1)消防、急救、个人救生技术,人身事故和个人安全的基本原理;      (2)理解值班驾驶员的命令,并使值班驾驶员理解他所表示的与其职责有关事项的能力;      (3)操舵和遵照舵令操舵的能力,并具有使能完成这些职责所需的磁罗经和电罗经的足够知识;      (4)用视觉和听觉保持正规了望,并能以度数、点数报告声号、灯号或其它物标的大致方位的能力;      (5)熟悉自动操舵和手操舵的相互更换;      (6)使用相应的船上内部通讯和警报系统的知识;      (7)烟火求救信号的知识;      (8)应急职责的知识;      (9)适应于他职务的船上术语及其定义的知识。      三、第二款第3项及第4项所要求的经验、经历或训练,可以通过执行与航行值班相关联的职责获得,但这些职责的执行须在船长、负责航行值班的驾驶员或合格的一般船员的直接监督下进行。      四、主管机关应确保对依照本规则以其经验或训练符合作为组成航行值班部分的一般船员的资格的每个海员发给认可的证件,或者在他现有的证件上作相应的签证。      五、如果一个海员,他在本公约对其主管机关生效前的五年内有不少于一年的时间已在甲板部担任有关的工作,则该主管机关可以认为他已符合本规则的要求。      规则Ⅱ/7 在港值班应遵守的基本原则      一、在正常的情况下,在港内安全地系泊或安全地锚泊的任何船上,为了安全,船长必须安排保持相应而有效的值班。      二、在组织值班时,应注意1978年海员培训和发证国际会议上通过的《对负责在港值班驾驶员的业务指导及工作原则的建议案》以及《对负责在港值班轮机员的业务指导及工作原则的建议案》的规定。      规则Ⅱ/8 在运载危险品船舶上在港值班的法定最低要求      一、每个运载散装危险品船舶的船长,不论所运载的危险品是或者可能是易爆的、易燃的、有毒的、危害健康的、或污染环境的,应确保指派现有在船的合格的高级船员和一般船员(在合适时)保持安全甲板值班和安全轮机值班,即使当船舶在港安全系泊或安全锚泊时,也应如此。      二、每个运载非散装的危险品船舶的船长,不论所运载的危险品是或可能是易爆、易燃、有毒、危害健康或污染环境的,应在组织安全值班安排时充分注意到这些危险品的性质、数量、包装和积载以及船上、水面上和岸上的任何特殊情况。      三、在组织值班时,必须充分注意到1978年海员培训和发证国际会议上通过的《对负责在港值班驾驶员的业务指导及工作原则的建议案》以及《对负责在港值班轮机员的业务指导及工作原则的建议案》。      第三章 轮 机 部      规则Ⅲ/1 轮机值班中应遵守的基本原则      一、缔约国必须指示船舶所有人、船舶营运人、船长、轮机长和值班人员注意遵守下列基本原则,以保证在任何时候都能进行安全轮机值班。      二、本规则中“值班”一词,既指“组成值班的小组”,也指“轮机员的责任期间”,在此期间,可以要求也可以不要求他亲临机舱。      三、所有的船舶必须考虑包括下列,但不限于下列的基本原则:      四、总则      1. 每条船的轮机长应与船长协商,确保值班的安排适合于保持安全值班,在决定轮机值班组成时,可包括合适的一般轮机人员在内,下列标准应特别予以考虑:      (1)船舶类型;      (2)机器类型和状况;      (3)由于情况的变化如气候、冰区、污染水域、浅水水域、各种应急情况、船损控制或消除污染而采用的特殊操作方法;      (4)值班船员的资格和经验;      (5)人命、船舶、货物和港口的安全及环境保护;      (6)国际、国家和当地规章的遵守;      (7)保持船舶正常运行。      2. 在轮机长的指导下,负责值班的轮机员必须按照要求对他职责范围内的一切机器和设备进行检查、操作和试验;负责值班的轮机员是轮机长的代表,在任何时候,他的主要责任都应是对影响船舶安全的机械设备进行安全有效的使用和保养。      3. 轮机长应在与船长协商的情况下,预先确定计划航次的需要,对燃料、淡水、润滑油、化学品、消耗品和其它备件、工具、供应品的需求以及其他任何的需要加以考虑。      五、操作      1. 负责值班的轮机员应确保既定的值班安排坚持下去。在他的全面指导之下,必须要求机舱值班的一般船员协助使推进机械和辅助设备得以安全和有效的工作。      2. 在轮机值班开始时,应对当时所有机器的运转参数和工作情况加以验证。任何机器如运转失常,预料将发生故障或需特殊处理的情况应和已经采取的措施做出记录。如果需要,应为进一步的措施拟出计划。      3. 负责值班的轮机员应保证将主推进装置和辅助系统置于经常的监管之下,对机舱和舵机房应按适当的间隔进行检查,并采取相应的措施来排除已发现的故障。      4. 对于需要有人值班的机舱,负责值班的轮机员,随时应能立即操纵推进设备以适应变向和变速的需要。      对于定期无人值班机舱,指定的负责值班的轮机员,当机舱呼叫照料时,应立即到达。      5. 一切驾驶台的命令必须迅速执行。主推进装置的变向和变速应做记录,除非主管机关认为由于个别船舶的特性和大小,使这种记录行不通时,才可不这样做。当人工操作时,负责值班的轮机员应保证在备车或操作状态下,主推进装置的控制器不间断地受到照料。      6. 负责值班的轮机员不应再被分派或承担任何可能妨碍他对主推进系统及其附属设备的管理任务,而应保证做到使主推进系统和辅助设备处于经常的监管之下,直至他正式交班为止。      7. 应给予一切机器的保养和维护应有的注意,包括机械、电气、液压和空气系统及其控制装置和与此相关的安全设备,一切居住舱室的生活设备以及物料和备品的使用记录。      8. 轮机长应保证做到将一切预防保养、船损控制或在值班时进行的修理工作等情况通知负责值班的轮机员。负责值班的轮机员应负责切断、旁通和调整他所管辖的将要操作的一切机器,并将已进行的所有工作记录下来。      9. 负责值班的轮机员在下班前,应将一切与主辅机有关的事件相应地记录下来。      10. 为使船舶和船员的安全免遭任何威胁,负责值班的轮机员,在发生火警、机舱可能采取导致船舶减速的措施、舵机即将失灵、船舶推进系统停止运转或供电方面发生任何变化或类似威胁安全的情况时立即通知驾驶台。此种通知,如果可能,应在采取行动之前完成,以便驾驶台有最充分的时间采取一切可能的措施避免可能发生的海难。      11. 当机舱处于备车状态时,负责值班的轮机员应保证一切在操作时可能用到的机器和设备处于随时可用状态,并使电力有充足的储备,以用于舵机和其它需要。      六、值班的要求      1. 值班的每一成员,必须熟悉指派给他的值班职责。此外,每个成员对其船舶应:      (1)恰当的使用内部通信系统的知识;      (2)机舱脱险途径的知识;      (3)机舱报警系统的知识,特别是关于辨别各种警报与二氧化碳警报的能力;      (4)有关机舱灭火设备的位置和使用的知识。      2. 在任何时候航行中的值班组织,应适于确保影响船舶安全运行的所有机器的安全运转,不论是自动还是手动操作,都应适合当时的环境和条件。为此,下列各点应特别予以考虑:      (1)在任何时候,对影响船舶安全运行的机器都应加以妥善管理;      (2)遥控推进设备和操舵设备及其控制器的状况和可靠性、控制的位置及程序,包括发生故障或应急时改用人工操作的程序;      (3)固定的火警控测器、灭火设备或控制火灾的器材的位置和操作方法;      (4)影响船舶安全航行、系泊或靠泊作业的辅助、备用和应急设备的使用和操作情况;      (5)保持机器设备正常状态的必要方法和步骤,以保证用各种方法操作船舶时机器能够有效地运转;      (6)由于特殊操作情况可能引起对值班的任何其他要求。      3.在开敞锚地,轮机长应与船长协商是否仍按航行时值班。      七、对职责的适任      值班制度不应由于疲劳影响值班工作效率,因此,轮机长在组织值班时,应使航行开始的第一班和其后各班的接班人都能经过充分的休息,或使其适任职责即可。      八、海上环境保护      所有轮机员和机舱一般船员均应意识到由于操作或偶然事故所造成的海上环境污染的严重后果,并应对这种污染采取一切可能的措施,特别是要采取有关国际和港口规定的措施。      规则Ⅲ/2 主推进动力装置为3000千瓦或以上的船舶轮机长和大管轮发证的法定最低要求      一、在主推进动力装置为3000千瓦或以上海船上的轮机长和大管轮均应持有相应的证书。      二、应试者应:      1. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,包括视力和听力;      2. 符合取得负责值班的轮机员证书的要求,并      (1)对于大管轮证书,须有不少于12个月经认可的轮机员或助理轮机员的海上经历;      (2)对于轮机长证书,须有不少于36个月经认可的海上经历,其中担任负责轮机员工作不少于12个月,同时具备大管轮的资格;      3. 参加过认可的消防实习课程;      4. 已通过相应的考试,成绩及格并使主管机关满意。这种考试应包括本规则附则所列的内容,除非主管机关认为有必要,对近岸航行、推进动力在限额以下的船舶的轮机员变更对这些考试的要求,但应注意对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响。      三、为取得必要的理论知识和实际经验的培训工作,应注意有关的国际规定和建议案。      四、附则各款所要求的知识水准,可根据证书是发给轮机长级或发给大管轮级的实际情况而定。      规则Ⅲ/2附则 主推进动力装置为3000千瓦或以上的船舶轮机长和大管轮发证所要求的最低知识      一、下列纲要是为取得主推进动力装置为3000千瓦或以上的船舶轮机长或大管轮合格证书的应试者而编写的。注意到大管轮随时可能承担起轮机长的责任,故在拟订这些科目的考试时,应以测验应试者掌握影响船舶机械操作安全的一切有用知识的能力为目的。      二、关于下面的第四款第1项,主管机关可以删去那些推进机械装置以外的其他机械类型的知识要求,所发的这种证书应是有效的,但以此为依据所发的证书对任何已删去的机械装置类型,在证明该轮机员能胜任这些项目并取得主管机关的满意之前,一律无效。任何这样的局限性应在证书上注明。      三、所有应试者都应具有下列科目的理论知识:      1.热力学和传热学;      2.力学和流体力学;      3.船舶动力装置(柴油、蒸汽和燃汽轮机)和制冷设备的操作原理;      4.燃油和润滑油的理化性质;      5.材料工艺学;      6.火灾和灭火剂的物理和化学性质;      7.船舶电气工艺学,电子学和电气设备;      8.自动控制基本原理,检测仪表和控制系统;      9.造船学和船舶结构,包括船损控制。      四、所有应试者应至少对下列科目具有足够的实际知识:      1. 下列机械装置的操作和保养:      (1)船用柴油机;      (2)船用蒸汽推进装置;      (3)船用燃气轮机;      2. 辅机的操作和保养,包括泵系和管系,辅锅炉装置和舵机系统;      3. 电气和控制设备的操作、测试和保养;      4. 起货设备和甲板机械的操作和保养;      5. 机器故障的查找,损坏部位的确定和防止损坏的措施;      6. 安全保养和修理程序的组织;      7. 防火、探火和灭火的设备和方法;      8. 防止船舶污染环境的设备和方法;      9. 为防止海上环境污染应遵守的规定;      10. 海上环境污染的影响;      11. 有关在机舱内可能发生的工伤的急救和急救设备的使用;      12. 救生设备的作用和使用方法;      13. 船损控制的方法;      14. 安全操作的实践。      五、所有应试者都应具有国际协定和公约中体现的国际海法知识,因这些国际协定和公约影响轮机部的特定职责,特别是那些有关安全和海上环境保护方面的职责。国家海事法规知识的范围应为主管机关自行决定,但应包括履行国际协定和公约的国家安排。      六、所有应试者都应具有人员组织管理和在船上培训的知识。      规则Ⅲ/3 主推进动力装置在750千瓦和3000千瓦之间的船舶轮机长和大管轮发证的法定最低要求      一、主推进动力装置在750千瓦和3000千瓦之间的海船上所有轮机长和大管轮应持有认可的证书。      二、所有应试者应:      1. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,包括视力和听力;      2. 符合取得负责值班的轮机员证书的要求,并      (1)对于大管轮证书须有不少于12个月经认可的轮机员或助理轮机员的海上经历;      (2)对于轮机长证书,须有不少于24个月经认可的海上经历,其中担任负责轮机员的工作不少于12个月,同时具备大管轮的资格。      3. 参加过认可的灭火实践课程;      4. 已通过相应的考试,成绩及格并使主管机关满意。这种考试应包括本规则附则中所列的内容,除主管机关可能改变对近岸航行船舶的轮机员的考试和海上服务经历的要求,但要注意这种船舶所安装的自动控制和遥控装置的类型以及对可能在同一水域航行的所有船舶安全的影响。      三、为取得必要的理论知识和实践经验的培训工作,应注意国际规定和建议案。      四、附则中的不同条款所要求的知识水准可根据证书是发给轮机长级或是发给大管轮级而定。      五、有资格担任主推进动力装置为3000千瓦或以上船舶大管轮工作的轮机员,如果有不少于12个月经认可的负责轮机员的海上经历,可以在主推进动力装置为3000千瓦以下的船舶上担任轮机长。      规则Ⅲ/3附则 主推进动力装置在750千瓦和3000千瓦之间的船舶轮机长 和大管轮发证所要求的最低知识      一、下列纲要是为取得主推进动力装置在750千瓦和3000千瓦之间的船舶轮机长或大管轮合格证书的应试者而编写的。注意到大管轮随时都可能承担起轮机长的责任,故在拟订这些科目的考试时,应以测验应试者掌握影响船舶机械操作安全的一切有用知识的能力为目的。      二、关于下面的第三款第4项和第四款第1项,主管机关可以删去那些推进机械装置以外的其他机械类型的知识要求,所发的这种证书应是有效的。但以此为依据所发的证书,对任何已删去机械装置类型,在证明该轮机员能胜任这些项目并使主管机关满意之前,一律无效。任何这样的局限性,应在证书中注明。      三、所有应试者都应具有足够的基本理论知识,以便理解下列科目中的基本原理:      1. 燃烧过程;      2. 传热学;      3. 力学和流体力学;      4. (1)船用柴油机;      (2)船用蒸汽推进装置;      (3)船用燃气轮机。      5. 舵机系统;      6. 燃油和润滑油的性质;      7. 材料性质;      8. 灭火剂;      9. 船用电气设备;      10. 自动装置、测试和控制系统;      11. 船舶结构包括船损控制;      12. 辅助系统。      四、所有应试者都应至少对下列科目具备足够的实际知识:      1. 下列机械的操作和保养:      (1)船用柴油机;      (2)船用蒸汽推进装置;      (3)船用燃气轮机。      2. 辅机系统,包括舵机系统的操作和保养;      3. 电气和控制设备的操作、测试和保养;      4. 装卸货设备和甲板机械的操作和保养;      5. 机械故障的查找,损坏部位的确定和防止损坏的措施;      6. 修理顺序和安全保养的组织;      7. 防火、探火和灭火的设备和方法;      8. 应该遵守的关于海上环境污染规定和防止这种污染的方法和设备;      9. 有关在机舱内可能发生的工伤的急救知识和急救设备的使用方法;      10. 救生设备的作用和使用方法;      11. 船损控制的方法,特别是海水进入机舱时应采取的措施;      12. 安全操作的实践。      五、所有应试者都应具有国际协定和公约中体现的国际海商法知识,因这些国际协定和公约影响轮机部的特定职责,特别是那些有关安全和海上环境保护方面的职责。国家海事法规知识的范围,应由主管机关自行决定,但应包括履行国际协定和公约的国家安排。      六、所有应试者都应具有人员组织管理和在船上培训的知识。      规则Ⅲ/4 对传统的有人看守机舱负责值班的轮机员或定期无人看守机舱指派的值班轮机员发证的法定最低要求      一、所有主机推进动力为750千瓦或以上的海船上传统有人看守机舱的值班轮机员或定期无人看守机舱指派的轮机员应持有相应的证书。      二、每个应试者应:      1. 年龄不小于18岁;      2. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,包括视力和听力;      3. 具有不少于三年与轮机员职责有关的认可的教育或训练;      4. 已完成足够时间的海上工作经历,这段经历可包括在第3项所载明的三年时间之内;      5. 使主管机关满意他具有与轮机员的职责相适应的操作与保养的理论与实践知识;      6. 参加过主管机关认可的消防课程;      7. 具有安全操作的实践知识。      主管机关可改变对近岸航行的主机推进动力在3000千瓦以下船舶的轮机员关于第3、第4项的要求,但要注意对可能在同一水域航行的一切船舶安全的影响。      三、所有应试者都应具有操作和保养主辅机的知识,其中包括与规定的要求有关的知识,至少也包括下列规定的各项:      1. 日常值班      (1)接班责任;      (2)值班期间例行职责;      (3)填写轮机日志和记下读数的意义;      (4)交班责任。      2. 主辅机      (1)协助主辅机备车工作;      (2)蒸汽锅炉,包括燃烧系统的操作;      (3)检查蒸汽锅炉水位的方法以及水位不正常时必须采取的措施;      (4)查找机舱和锅炉间的机械设备和装置的一般故障及预防损坏的必要措施。      3. 泵系      (1)泵的操作规程;      (2)舱底水、压舱水和货泵系统的操作。      4. 电站      发电机的备车、起动、并车和转换。      5. 安全和应急措施      (1)值班时须遵守的安全注意事项以及一旦发生火警和发生意外事故时,特别是有关油的系统的事故或火灾时立即采取的措施;      (2)对电气或其他类型的动力装置和设备,在允许工作人员检修之前,需要对这种动力装置和设备从系统中切断以策安全。      6. 防止污染措施      应遵守防止油、货底、粪便、排烟或其它污染物质对环境污染的事项,防污染设备的使用,包括油水分离器、渣油柜系统、粪便处理装置等。      7. 急救      机舱内可能发生工伤的基本急救方法。      四、在蒸汽锅炉不构成船舶主辅机的船上,主管机关可删去第三款第2项第(2)和第(3)目所要求的知识。以此为根据所发的证书,对在蒸汽锅炉构成船舶主辅机的船上工作、证明该轮机员能胜任删去的项目所规定的要求并使主管机关满意之前,一律无效。任何这样的局限性应在证书上注明。      五、取得必要的理论知识和实践经验的培训必须注意有关国际规定和建议案。      规则Ⅲ/5 保证轮机员不断精通业务并掌握最新知识的法定最低要求      一、在海上工作的所有持证轮机员,或在离船上岸一段时间之后欲重返海上工作的持证轮机员,为了继续取得与其证书相应的海上工作职称,须在不超过五年的间隔期限之内,符合主管机关下列要求:      1. 体检合格;和      2. 业务能力:      (1)在过去五年中,至少有一年认可的轮机员工作的经历;或      (2)已完成了与所持证书规定的等级相符的职责有关的任务,这至少可以被认为是与第一款第2项第(1)目中所要求的海上经历相等;或      (3)能做到下列各项之一:      ——通过认可的测验;或      ——圆满地修完认可的一门或几门课程;      ——已完成不少于三个月认可的轮机员海上经      历,在就任证书职称之前不久,担任过低于      该证书级别的职务      二、第一款第2项第(3)目所述一门或几门课程,特别应包括与海上人命安全和海上环境保护有关的国际规则及其变动情况。      三、主管机关应保证将与海上人命安全和海上环境保护有关的国际规则的最新变动的条文发给其所管辖的船舶。      规则Ⅲ/6 对组成机舱值班部分的一般船员的法定最低要求      一、对组成机舱值班部分的一般船员的最低要求应如第二款所列,这些要求不适用于:      1. 已提名为负责值班的轮机员的助手的一般船员;      2. 正在培训的一般船员;      3. 在值班时其职责属非技术性的一般船员。      二、每个组成机舱值班部分的一般船员应:      1. 不小于16岁;      2. 符合主管机关对体验的要求,包括视力和听力;      3. 满足主管机关下列要求:      (1)有关消防、基本急救、自救技术、人身事故及人身安全方面的经验或训练;      (2)在有关他职责内的事务中理解命令和使人理解的能力。      4. 符合主管机关要求,他具有:      (1)主管机关所要求的足够的海上经历来弥补与他海上职务有关的陆上经验;或      (2)在上船前或在船上受过专门培训,包括主管机关所要求的足够的海上工作经历;或      (3)至少六个月认可的海上工作经历。      三、每个这样的一般船员都应具有下列知识:      1. 机舱值班程序和执行与其职责相适应的日常值班能力;      2. 与机舱操作有关的安全工作实际经验;      3. 与其职责有关的机舱用语以及机器和设备名称;      4. 环境保护的基本措施。      四、每个指定值锅炉班的一般船员,应具有安全使用锅炉的知识,并应具有保持正确水位和汽压的能力。      五、所有组成机舱值班部分的一般船员,应熟悉他在该船机舱内值班的任务,尤其应具有与该船有关的;      1. 使用相应的船内通信系统的知识;      2. 机舱脱险途径的知识;      3. 机舱警报系统的知识和有分辨不同警报、特别是气体灭火警报的能力;      4. 熟悉机舱内消防设备的位置和使用方法。      六、一个海员,如果在本规则被主管机关批准实施之前的五年中有不少于一年的时间在轮机部工作,他即可被主管机关认为已符合本规则要求。      第四章 无线电部分      无线电值班和维修说明:      关于无线电值班的法定规定,已订入无线电规则;关于安全无线电值班和维修的规定,已订入国际海上人命安全公约和无线电规则,这两种规则日后可能有所修正,但目前仍属有效。关于1978年海员培训和发证国际会议所通过的有关决议亦已有所注意。      规则Ⅳ/1 无线电报员发证的法定最低要求      一、 在船上负责或执行无线电职责的每个电报员必须持有按无线电规则的规定、由主管机关颁发或承认的一种或几种适当的证书,并具有足够合格的资历。      二、 此外,电报员应:      1. 年龄不小于18岁;      2. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力、听力和说话能力;      3. 符合本规则附则的要求。      三、 要求每个应试者必须通过一种或几种考试,并使主管机关满意。      四、 发征所要求的知识水平,应使电报员足以安全和有效地执行其无线电职责。在确定适当的知识水平和为要取得此种知识和实际能力时所需要的培训,主管机关应考虑无线电规则和本规则附则的要求。主管机关也应考虑1978年海员培训和发证国际会议所通过的有关决议案和有关的海协建议案。      规则Ⅳ/1附则 无线电报员最低附加知识和培训要求      除符合按照无线电规则颁发证书的要求外,电报员应该具有下述知识和包括实际训练在内的培训:      1. 无线电应急业务的规定,包括:      (1)弃船;      (2)船舶失火;      (3)电台局部或全部损坏。      2. 救生艇、救生筏、救生浮具及其属具,特别是关于便携式和固定式救生艇无线电装置和应急无线电示位标的操作;      3. 海上救助;      4. 急救;      5. 防火和灭火,特别是关于无线电设施的防火和灭火;      6. 与船舶和人员安全有关的无线电设备的危害的预防措施,包括电的、辐射的、化学的和机械的危害;      7. 海协《商船搜寻救生手册》的使用,特别是其中有关无线电通信部分的使用;      8. 船位报告系统和程序;      9. 国际信号规则和海协标准航海用语的使用;      10. 无线电医疗系统和程序。      规则Ⅳ/2 保证无线电报员不断精通业务和掌握最新知识的法定最低要求      一、 每个持有由主管机关颁发或承认的一种或几种证书的电报员,为了继续取得海上服务的资格,必须符合主管机关的下述要求:      1. 在每隔不超过五年的时间内,进行体检,体格健康,特别是视力、听力和说话能力;以及      2. 专业能力:      (1)被认可的一个电报员的无线电通信业务,一次中断不得超过五年;      (2)如发生中断,应在海上或岸上,通过主管机关承认的测验或圆满地完成主管机关批准的(单科或综合的)训练课程,这些课程必须包括的内容是直接关系到海上人命安全和现代化无线电通信设备,也可包括无线电导航设备。      二、 当有权悬挂其旗帜的船舶采用了新的方法、设备或业务时,该主管机关可以要求无线电报员在海上或岸上通过一次被认可的测验或圆满地完成一次适当的、特别是与安全职责有关的单科或综合训练课程。      三、 经国际会议通过,在具有特殊培训要求的特种船舶上工作的每个电报员为继续取得海上工作的资格,必须圆满地完成认可的有关培训或考试,这些培训或考试,应该考虑有关的国际规则和建议案。      四、 主管机关必须保证向它所管辖下的船舶提供有关无线电通信和海上人命安全的国际规则中的最新修改的文本。      五、 在与有关方面协商下,鼓励主管机关在海上或岸上自愿或强制地(如适当)为现职的,特别是为重返海上服务的电报员制定或促使制订其结构公式化的复习和现代化课程。这些单科与综合的课程应该包括的内容是直接关系到无线电职责和海上无线电通信技术变化和有关的国际规则以及有关海上人命安全的建议案。      规则Ⅳ/3 无线电话务员发证的法定最低要求      一、 在船上负责或执行无线电职责的每个无线电话务员,必须持有在无线电规则的规定下,由主管机关颁发或承认的一种或几种相应的证书。      二、 此外,在国际海上人命安全公约要求装有无线电话台的船上的无线电话务员,必须:      1. 年龄不少于18岁;      2. 符合主管机关对体检的要求,特别是视力、听力和说话能力;      3. 符合本规则附则的要求。      三、 要求每个应试者必须通过一种或几种考试,并使有关主管机关满意。      四、 证书所要求的知识水平,对于无线电话务员完全地和有效地执行其无线电职责应该是足够的。在确定适当的知识水平和为要达到此种知识和实际能力所需的培训时,主管机关必须考虑无线电规则和本规则的附则的要求,主管机关也应考虑1978年海员培训和发证国际会议通过的有关决议案和有关的海协建议案。      规则Ⅳ/3附则 无线电话务员最低附加知识和培训要求      除符合无线电规则颁发证书的要求外,无线电话务员应具有下述知识和训练,包括实际的训练:      1. 无线电应急业务的规定,包括:      (1)弃船;      (2)船舶失火;      (3)电台局部或全部损坏。      2. 救生艇、救生筏、救生浮具及其属具,特别是关于便携式和固定式救生艇无线电装置和应急无线电示位标的操作;      3. 海上救助;      4. 急救;      5. 防火和灭火,特别是关于无线电设施的防火和灭火;      6. 与船舶和人员安全有关的无线电设备的危害的预防措施,包括电的、辐射的、化学的和机械的危害;      7. 海协《商船搜寻救生手册》的使用,特别是其中有关无线电通信部分;      8. 船位报告系统和程序;      9. 国际信号规则和海协标准航海用语的使用;      10. 无线电医疗系统和程序。      第五章 对槽管轮的特别要求      规则Ⅴ/1 对油轮船长、高级船员和一般船员的培训和资格的法定最低要求      一、 在油轮上与货和货运设备有关的、即将负有特殊职责和与那些职责有关的责任,以及那些未曾在油轮上作为正式人员工作过的高级船员和一般船员,在履行这种职责之前,应在岸上完成有关的消防课程,和      1. 为了获得足够的安全操作实践知识,在船上实习一个适当长的时期;或      2. 被认可的油轮业务课程,包括安全基础,防污染措施和方法,不同类型油轮的布局、货的类别,它们的危害性和处理设备,一般的操作顺序及油轮术语。      二、 船长、轮机长、大副、大管轮和除上述人员以外与装卸和照管运输和处理货油有直接责任的人员,除本规则第一款的规定外,还应:      1. 有相应于他们在油轮职责的有关经验;和      2. 已完成一个与他们职责相适应的专门化的培训项目,包括油轮安全、防火安全措施和系统,防止和控制污染,操作实践以及适用法律和规则的应尽义务。      三、 缔约国在本公约生效后二年内,如果一个海员在这以前的五年中有不少于一年的时间在油轮上担任有关职务,则可被认为是符合本规则第二款第2项的要求。      规则Ⅴ/2 对化学品船船长、高级船员和一般船员的培训和资格的法定最低要求 一、 在化学品船上与货和货运设备有关的、即将负有特殊职责和与那些职责有关的责任以及那些未曾在化学品船上作为正式人员工作过的高级船员和一般船员,在履行这种职责之前,应在岸上完成有关的消防课程,和      1. 为了获得足够的安全操作实践知识,在船上实习一个适当长的时期;或      2. 被认可的化学品船业务课程,包括安全基础、防污染措施和方法,不同类型化学品船的布局、货的类别,它们的危害性和处理设备,一般的操作顺序及化学品船的术语。      二、 船长、轮机长、大副、大管轮和除上述人员以外与装卸和照管运输和处理货物有直接责任的人员,除本规则第一款的规定外,还必须:      1. 有相应于他们在化学品船职责的有关经验;和      2. 已完成一个与他们职责相适应的专门培训项目,包括化学品船安全、防火安全措施和系统、防止和控制污染、操作实践以及适用法律和规则的应尽义务。      三、 缔约国在本公约生效后二年之内,如果一个海员在这以前五年中有不少于一年的时间在化学品船上担任有关职务,则可被认为是符合本规则第二款第2项的要求。      规则Ⅴ/3 对液化气体船船长、高级船员和一般船员的培训和资格的法定最低要求      一、 在液化气体船上与货和货运设备有关的、即将负有特殊职责和与那些职责有关的责任,以及那些未曾在液化气体船上作为正式人员工作过的高级船员和一般船员,在履行这种职责之前,应在岸上完成有关的消防课程,和      1. 为了获得足够的安全操作实践知识,在船上实习一个适当长的时期;或      2. 被认可的液化气体船业务课程,包括安全基础、防污染措施和方法,不同液化气体船的布局、货的类别,它们的危害性和处理设备,一般的操作顺序和液化气体船的术语。      二、 船长、轮机长、大副、大管轮和除上述人员之外与装卸和照管运输和处理货物有直接责任的人员,除本规则第一款的规定外,还应:      1. 有相应于他们在液化气体船职责的有关经验;和      2. 已完成一个与他们职责相适应的专门培训项目,包括液化气体船的安全、防火安全措施和系统,防止和控制污染,操作实践以及适用法律和规则的应尽义务。      三、 缔约国在本公约生效后的二年之内,如果一个海员在这以前的五年中,有不少于一年的时间在液化气体船上担任有关职务,则可被认为是符合本规则第二款第2项的要求。      第六章 精通救生艇业务      规则Ⅵ/1 关于颁发精通救生艇业务证书的法定最低要求      每个发给精通救生艇业务证书的海员应:      一、 年龄不小于17岁半;      二、 符合主管机关对体检的要求;      三、 不少于12个月已认可的海上经历或参加过认可的训练课程与不少于九个月认可的海上经历;      四、 考试或在认可的训练课程中经常性考核使主管机关满意,即他已具有本规则附则所列内容的知识;      五、 通过考试或在认可的训练课程中的经常性考核,使主管机关满意,表明他已具有下列能力:      1. 正确地穿着救生衣;从高处安全地跳入水中;穿着救生衣从水中登上救生艇;      2. 穿着救生衣扶正一个倾覆的救生筏;      3. 说出救生艇上所标的额定乘员数;      4. 对救生艇筏的放落、登乘、驶离大船、操纵和人员离艇作出所要求的正确指挥;      5. 准备放艇并安全地放艇入水,迅速地驶离大船船边;      6. 在弃船过程中和弃船后处理受伤人员;      7. 划桨及操舵、竖桅、升帆、用帆和依罗经操舵时管理救生艇;      8. 使用信号设备,包括烟火;      9. 使用救生艇用的便携式无线电设备。      规则Ⅵ/1附则 颁发精通救生艇业务证书的最低知识要求      一、 可能发生的紧急情况类别,如碰撞、失火、沉没。      二、 救生原则包括:      1. 训练和操练的意义;      2. 必须随时准备好应付任何紧急情况;      3. 当召唤至放救生艇处时应采取的行动;      4. 当要求弃船时应采取的行动;      5. 在水中应采取的行动;      6. 在救生艇上应采取的行动;      7. 对生还者的主要危险。      三、 分配给注明在集合名单中各个船员的专门职责,包括召集所有船员到救生艇或失火场所两种信号不同的部署。      四、 通常配备于船上的救生设备的种类。      五、 救生艇的构造和装备及其设备的各个细目。      六、 救生艇的特殊性能和设备。      七、 用于放落救生艇的吊艇柱的各种类型。      八、 将救生艇放到大风浪海面的方法。      九、 离大船后应采取的行动。      十、 在恶劣天气下操纵救生艇筏。      十一、 索具、海锚及所有其他设备的使用。      十二、 救生艇上食品和淡水的分配。      十三、 直升飞机救助的方法。      十四、 使用急救箱和复苏技术。      十五、 带在救生艇上的无线电设备,包括应急无线电示位标。      十六、 低温影响和防护,防护遮盖及防护服的使用。      十七、 启动和操纵救生艇机器的方法和所配灭火机的使用。      十八、 使用应急艇和机动救生艇以集合救助生还者与落海人员。      十九、 救生艇的抢滩。      INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON STANDARDS OF TRAINING, CERTIFICATIONAND WATCHKEEPING FOR SEAFARERS, 1978           TABLE OF CONTENTSInternational Convention on Standards of Training, Certificationand watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 Annex  Chapter I. General Provisions      Regulation I/1 Definitions      Regulation I/2 Content of Certificates and Form of Endorsement      Regulation I/3 Principles Governing Near-Coastal Voyages      Regulation I/4 Control Procedures  Chapter II. Master-Deck Department      Regulation II/1 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping aNavigational Watch      Regulation II/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofMasters and Chief Mates of Ships of 200 Gross Register Tons or More      Regulation II/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofOfficers in Charge of a Navigational Watch and of Masters of Ships of Lessthan 200 Gross Register Tons      Regulation II/4 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofOfficers in Charge of a Navigational Watch on Ships of 200 Gross RegisterTons or More      Regulation II/5 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure theContinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Masters and DeckOfficers      Regulation II/6 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Ratings FormingPart of a Navigational Watch      Regulation II/7 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping a Watchin Port      Regulation II/8 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for a Watch in Porton ships Carrying Hazardous Cargo  Chapter III. Engine Department      Regulation III/1 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping anEngineering Watch      Regulation III/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofChief Engineer Officers and Second Engineer Officers of Ships Powered byMain Propulsion Machinery of 3000 kW Propulsion Power or More      Regulation III/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofChief Engineer Officers and Second Engineer Officers of Ships Powered byMain Propulsion Machinery between 750 kW and 3000 kW Propulsion Power      Regulation III/4 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofEngineer Officers in Charge of a Watch in a Traditionally Manned EngineRoom or Designated Duty Engineer Officers in a Periodically UnmannedEngine Room      Regulation III/5 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure theContinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Engineer Officers      Regulation III/6 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Ratings FormingPart of an Engine Room Watch  Chapter IV. Radio Department      Regulation IV/1 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofRadio Officers      Regulation IV/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure theContinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Radio Officers      Regulation IV/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Certification ofRadiotelephone Operators  Chapter V. Special Requirements for Tankers      Regulation V/1 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Oil Tankers      Regulation V/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Chemical Tankers      Regulation V/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Liquefied Gas Tankers  Chapter VI. Proficiency in Survival Craft Regulation VI/1 MandatoryMinimum Requirements for the Issue of Certificate of Proficiency inSurvival CraftINTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON STANDARDS OF TRAINING,  CERTIFICATION ANDWATCHKEEPING FOR SEAFARERS, 1978    The Parties to this Convention,    Desiring to promote safety of life and property at sea and theprotection of the marine environment by establishing in common agreementinternational standards of training, certification and watchkeeping forseafarers,    Considering that this end may best be achieved by the conclusion of anInternational Convention on Standards of Training, Certification andWatchkeeping for Seafarers,    Have agreed as follows:          Article I General Obligations under the Convention    (1) The Parties undertake to give effect to the provisions of theConvention and the Annex thereto, which shall constitute an integral partof the Convention. Every reference to the Convention constitutes at thesame time a reference to the Annex.    (2) The Parties undertake to promulgate all laws, decrees, orders andregulations and to take all other steps which may be necessary to give theConvention full and complete effect, so as to ensure that, from the pointof view of safety of life and property at sea and the protection of themarine environment, seafarers on board ships are qualified and fit fortheir duties.          Article II Definitions    For the purpose of the Convention, unless expressly providedotherwise:        (a) "Party" means a State for which the Convention has enteredinto force;        (b) "Administration" means the Government of the Party whose flagthe ship is entitled to fly;        (c) "Certificate" means a valid document, by whatever name it maybe known, issued by or under the authority of the Administration orrecognized by the Administration authorizing the holder to serve as statedin this document or as authorized by national regulations;        (d) "Certificated" means properly holding a certificate;        (e) "Organization" means the Inter-Governmental MaritimeConsultative Organization (IMCO);        (f) "Secretary-General" means the Secretary-General of theOrganization;        (g) "Sea-going ship" means a ship other than those which navigateexclusively in inland waters or in waters within, or closely adjacent to,sheltered waters or areas where port regulations apply;        (h) "Fishing vessel" means a vessel used for catching fish,whales, seals, walrus or other living resources of the sea;        (i) "Radio Regulations" means the Radio Regulations annexed to, orregarded as being annexed to, the most recent InternationalTelecommunication Convention which may be in force at any time.          Article III Application    The Convention shall apply to seafarers serving on board sea-goingships entitled to fly the flag of a Party except to those serving onboard:        (a) warships, naval auxiliaries or other ships owned or operatedby a State and engaged only on governmental non-commercial service;however, each Party shall ensure by the adoption of appropriate measuresnot impairing the operations or operational capabilities of such shipsowned or operated by it, that the persons serving on board such ships meetthe requirements of the Convention so far as is reasonable andpracticable;        (b) Fishing vessels;        (c) pleasure yachts not engaged in trade; or        (d) wooden ships of primitive build.          Article IV Communication of Information    (1) The Parties shall communicate as soon as practicable to theSecretary-General:        (a) the text of laws, decrees, orders, regulations and instrumentspromulgated on the various matters within the scope of the Convention;        (b) full details, where appropriate, of contents and duration ofstudy courses, together with their national examination and otherrequirements for each certificate issued in compliance with theConvention;        (c) a sufficient number of specimen certificates issued incompliance with the Convention.    (2) The Secretary-General shall notify all Parties of the receipt ofany communication under paragraph (1) (a) and, inter alia, for thepurposes of Articles IX and X, shall, on request,  provided them with anyinformation communicated to him under paragraphs (1) (b) and (c).          Article V Other Treaties and Interpretation    (1) All prior treaties, conventions and arrangements relating tostandards of training,  certification and watchkeeping for seafarers inforce between the Parties, shall continue to have full and complete effectduring the terms thereof as regards:        (a) seafarers to whom this Convention does not apply;        (b) seafarers to whom this Convention applies, in respect ofmatters for which it has not expressly provided.    (2) To the extent, however, that such treaties, conventions orarrangements conflict with the provisions of the Convention, the Partiesshall review their commitments under such treaties, conventions andarrangements with a view to ensuring that there is no conflict betweenthese commitments and their obligations under the Convention.    (3) All matters which are not expressly provided for in the Conventionremain subject to the legislation of Parties.    (4) Nothing in the Convention shall prejudice the codification anddevelopment of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference on theLaw of the Sea convened pursuant to resolution 2750 C (XXV) of the GeneralAssembly of the United Nations, nor the present or future claims and legalviews of any State concerning the law of the sea and the nature and extentof coastal and flag State jurisdiction.          Article VI Certificates    (1) Certificates for masters, officers or ratings shall be issued tothose candidates who, to the satisfaction of the Administration, meet therequirements for service, age, medical fitness,  training, qualificationand examinations in accordance with the appropriate provisions of theAnnex to the Convention.    (2) Certificates for masters and officers, issued in compliance withthis Article, shall be endorsed by the issuing Administration in the formas prescribed in Regulation I/2 of the Annex. If the language used is notEnglish, the endorsement shall include a translation into that language.          Article VII Transitional Provisions    (1) A certificate of competency or of service in a capacity for whichthe Convention requires a certificate and which before entry into force ofthe Convention for a Party is issued in accordance with the laws of thatParty or the Radio Regulations, shall be recognized as valid for serviceafter entry into force of the Convention for that Party.    (2) After the entry into force of the Convention for a Party, itsAdministration may continue to issue certificates in competency inaccordance with its previous practices for a period not exceeding fiveyears. Such certificates shall be recognized as valid for the purpose ofthe Convention. During this transitional period such certificates shall beissued only to seafarers who had commenced their sea service before entryinto force of the Convention for that Party within the specific shipdepartment to which those certificates relate. The Administration shallensure that all other candidates for certification shall be examined andcertificated in accordance with the Convention.    (3) A Party may, within two years after entry into force of theConvention for that Party,  issue a certificate of service to seafarerswho hold neither an appropriate certificate under the Convention nor acertificate of competency issued under its laws before entry into force ofthe Convention for that Party but who have:        (a) served in the capacity for which they seek a certificate ofservice for not less than three years at sea within the last seven yearspreceding entry force of the Convention for that Party;        (b) produced evidence that they have performed that servicesatisfactorily;        (c) satisfied the Administration as to medical fitness, includingeyesight and hearing, taking into account their age at the time ofapplication.    For the purpose of the Convention, a certificate of service issuedunder this paragraph shall be regarded as the equivalent of a certificateissued under the Convention.          Article VIII Dispensation    (1) In the circumstances of exceptional necessity, Administrations, ifin their opinion this does not cause danger to persons, property or theenvironment, may issue a dispensation permitting a specified seafarer toserve in a specified ship for a specified period not exceeding six monthsin a capacity, other than that of the radio officer or radiotelephoneoperator, except as provided by the relevant Radio Regulations, for whichhe does not hold the appropriate certificate,  provided that the person towhom the dispensation is issued shall be adequately qualified to fill thevacant post in a safe manner, to the satisfaction of the Administration.However,  dispensations shall not be granted to a master or chief engineerofficer, except in circumstances of force majeure and then only for theshortest possible period.    (2) Any dispensation granted for a post shall be granted only to aperson properly certificated to fill the post immediately below. Wherecertification of the post below is not required by the Convention, adispensation may be issued to a person whose qualification and experienceare, in the opinion of the Administration, of a clear equivalence to therequirements for the post to be filled, provided that, if such a personholds no appropriate certificate, he shall be required to pass a testaccepted by the Administration as demonstrating that such a dispensationmay safely be issued. In addition, Administrations shall ensure that thepost in question is filled by the holder of an appropriate certificate assoon as possible.    (3) Parties shall, as soon as possible after January 1 of each year,send a report to the Secretary-General giving information of the totalnumber of dispensations in respect of each capacity for which acertificate is required that have been issued during the year to sea-goingships, together with information as to the numbers of those ships aboveand below 1 600 gross register tons respectively.          Article IX Equivalents    (1) The Convention shall not prevent an Administration from retainingor adopting other educational and training arrangements, including thoseinvolving sea-going service and shipboard organization especially adaptedto technical developments and to special types of ships and trades,provided that the level of sea-going service, knowledge and efficiency asregards navigational and technical handling of ship and cargo ensures adegree of safety at sea and has a preventive effect as regards pollutionat least equivalent to the requirements of the Convention.    (2) Details of such arrangements shall be reported as early aspracticable to the Secretary-General who shall circulate such particularsto all Parties.          Article X Control    (1) Ships, except those excluded by Article III, are subject, while inthe ports of a Party,  to control by officers duly authorized by thatParty to verify that all seafarers serving on board who are required to becertificated by the Convention are so certificated or hold an appropriatedispensation. Such certificates shall be accepted unless there are cleargrounds for believing that a certificate has been fraudulently obtained orthat the holder of a certificate is not the person to whom thatcertificate was originally issued.    (2) In the event that any deficiencies are found under paragraph (1)or under the procedures specified in Regulation I/4-"Control Procedures",the officer carrying out the control shall forthwith inform, in writing,the master of the ship and the Consul or, in his absence,  the nearestdiplomatic representative or the maritime authority of the State whoseflag the ship is entitled to fly, so that appropriate action may be taken.Such notification shall specify the details of the deficiencies found andthe grounds on which the Party determines that these deficiencies pose adanger to persons, property or the environment.    (3) In exercising the control under paragraph (1) if, taking intoaccount the size and type of the ship and the length and nature of thevoyage, the deficiencies referred to in paragraph 3 of Regulation I/4 arenot corrected and it is determined that this fact poses a danger topersons,  property or the environment, the Party carrying out the controlshall take steps to ensure that the ship will not sail unless and untilthese requirements are met to the extent that the danger has been removed.The facts concerning the action taken shall be reported promptly to theSecretary-General.    (4) When exercising control under this Article, all possible effortsshall be made to avoid a ship being unduly detained or delayed. If a shipis so detained or delayed it shall be entitled to compensation for anyloss or damage resulting therefrom.    (5) This Article shall be applied as may be necessary to ensure thatno more favourable treatment is given to ships entitled to fly the flag ofa non-Party than is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party.          Article XI Promotion of Technical Co-operation    (1) Parties to the Convention shall promote, in consultation with, andwith the assistance of, the Organization, support for those Parties whichrequest technical assistance for:        (a) training of administrative and technical personnel;        (b) establishment of institutions for the training of seafarers;        (c) supply of equipment and facilities for training institutions;        (d) development of adequate training programmes, includingpractical training on sea-going ships; and        (e) facilitation of other measures and arrangements to enhance thequalifications of seafarers;    preferably on a national, sub-regional or regional basis, to furtherthe aims and purposes of the Convention, taking into account the specialneeds of developing countries in this regard.    (2) On its part, the Organization shall pursue the aforesaid efforts,as appropriate, in consultation or association with the otherinternational organizations, particularly the International LabourOrganisation.          Article XII Amendments    (1) The Convention may be amended by either of the followingprocedures:        (a) amendments after consideration within the Organization:            (i) any amendment proposed by a Party shall be submitted tothe Secretary-General,  who shall then circulate it to all Members of theOrganization, all Parties and the Director-General of the InternationalLabour Office at least six months prior to its consideration;            (ii) any amendment so proposed and circulated shall bereferred to the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization forconsideration;            (iii) Parties, whether or not Members of the Organization,shall be entitled to participate in the proceedings of the Maritime SafetyCommittee for consideration and adoption of amendments;            (iv) amendments shall be adopted by a two thirds majority ofthe Parties present and voting in the Maritime Safety Committee expandedas provided for in sub-paragraph (a) (iii) (hereinafter referred to as the"expanded Maritime Safety Committee")  on condition that at least onethird of the Parties shall be present at the time of voting;            (v) amendments so adopted shall be communicated by theSecretary-General to all Parties for acceptance;            (vi) an amendment to an Article shall be deemed to have beenaccepted on the date on which it is accepted by two thirds of the Parties;            (vii) an amendment to the Annex shall be deemed to have beenaccepted:                1. at the end of two years from the date on which it iscommunicated to Parties for acceptance; or                2. at the end of a different period, which shall be notless than one year, if so determined at the time of its adoption by a twothirds majority of the Parties present and voting in the expandingMaritime Safety Committee;  however, the amendments shall be deemed not tohave been accepted if within the specified period either more than onethird of Parties, or Parties the combined merchant fleets of whichconstitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of theworld\'s merchant shipping of ships of 100 gross register tons or more,notify the Secretary-General that they object to the amendment;            (viii) an amendment to an Article shall enter into force withrespect to those Parties which have accepted it, six months after the dateon which it is deemed to have been accepted, and with respect to eachParty which accepts it after that date,  six months after the date of thatParty\'s acceptance;            (ix) an amendment to the Annex shall enter into force withrespect to all Parties, except those which have objected to the amendmentunder sub-paragraph (a) (vii)  and which have not withdrawn suchobjections, six months after the date on which it is deemed to have beenaccepted. Before the date determined for entry into force, any Party maygive notice to the Secretary-General that it exempts itself from givingeffect to that amendment for a period not longer than one year from thedate of its entry into force, or for such longer period as may bedetermined by a two thirds majority of the Parties present and voting inthe expanded Maritime Safety Committee at the time of the adoption of theamendment; or        (b) amendment by a conference:            (i) upon the request of a Party concurred in by at least onethird of the Parties, the Organization shall convene, in association orconsultation with the Director-General of the International Labour Office,a conference of Parties to consider amendments to the Convention;            (ii) every amendment adopted by such a conference by a twothirds majority of the Parties present and voting shall be communicated bythe Secretary-General to all Parties for acceptance;            (iii) unless the conference decides otherwise, the amendmentshall be deemed to have been accepted and shall enter into force inaccordance with the procedures specified in sub-paragraphs (a) (vi) and(a) (viii) or sub-paragraphs (a) (vii) and (a)  (ix) respectively,provided that references in these sub-paragraphs to the expanded MaritimeSafety Committee shall be taken to mean references to the conference.    (2) Any declaration of acceptance of, or objection to, an amendment orany notice given under paragraph (1) (a) (ix) shall be submitted inwriting to the Secretary-General, who shall inform all Parties of any suchsubmission and the date of its receipt.    (3) The Secretary-General shall inform all Parties of any amendmentswhich enter into force, together with the date on which each suchamendment enters into force.          Article XIII Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Ac-cession    (1) The Convention shall remain open for signature at the Headquartersof the Organization from December 1, 1978 until November 30, 1979 andshall thereafter remain open for accession. Any State may become a Partyby:        (a) signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptanceor approval; or        (b) signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval,followed by ratification, acceptance or approval; or        (c) accession.    (2) Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be effectedby the deposit of an instrument to that effect with the Secretary-General.    (3) The Secretary-General shall inform all States that have signed theConvention or acceded to it and the Director-General of the InternationalLabour Office of any signature or of the deposit of any instrument orratification, acceptance, approval or accession and the date of itsdeposit.          Article XIV Entry into Force    (1) The Convention shall enter into force twelve months after the dateon which not less than twenty-five States, the combined merchant fleets ofwhich constitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of theworld\'s merchant shipping of ships of 100 gross register tons or more,have either signed it without reservation as to ratification, acceptanceor approval or deposited the requisite instruments of ratification,acceptance, approval or accession in accordance with Article XIII.    (2) The Secretary-General shall inform all States that have signed theConvention or acceded to it of the date on which it enters into force.    (3) Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accessiondeposited during the twelve months referred to in paragraph (1) shall takeeffect on the coming into force of the Convention or three months afterthe deposit of such instrument, whichever is the later date.    (4) Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accessiondeposited after the date on which the Convention enters into force shalltake effect three months after the date of deposit.    (5) After the date on which an amendment is deemed to have beenaccepted under Article XII, any instrument of ratification, acceptance,approval or accession deposited shall apply to the Convention as amended.          Article XV Denunciation    (1) The Convention may be denounced by any Party at any time afterfive years from the date on which the Convention entered into force forthat Party.    (2) Denunciation shall be effected by notification in writing to theSecretary-General who shall inform all other Parties and theDirector-General of the International Labour Office of any suchnotification received and of the date of its receipt as well as the dateon which such denunciation takes effect.    (3) A denunciation shall take effect twelve months after receipt ofthe notification of denunciation by the Secretary-General or after anylonger period which may be indicated in the notification.          Article XVI Deposit and Registration    (1) The Convention shall be deposited with the Secretary-General whoshall transmit certified true copies thereof to all States that havesigned the Convention or acceded to it.    (2) As soon as the Convention enters into force, the Secretary-Generalshall transmit the text to the Secretary-General of the United Nations forregistration and publication, in accordance with Article 102 of theCharter of the United Nations.          Article XVII Languages    The Convention is established in a single copy in the Chinese,English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equallyauthentic. Official translations in the Arabic and German languages shallbe prepared and deposited with the signed original.    IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned *, being duly authorized by theirrespective Governments for that purpose, have signed the Convention.    [* Signatures omitted.]    DONE AT LONDON this seventh day of July, one thousand nine hundred andseventy-eight.          ANNEX           CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS           Regulation I/1 Definitions    For the purpose of this Convention, unless expressly providedotherwise:        (a) "Regulations" means Regulations contained in the Annex to theConvention;        (b) "Approved" means approved by the Administration;        (c) "Master" means the person having command of a ship;        (d) "Officer" means a member of the crew, other than the master,designated as such by national law or regulations or in the absence ofsuch designation by collective agreement or custom;        (e) "Deck officer" means a qualified officer in the deckdepartment;        (f) "Chief mate" means the deck officer next in rank to the masterand upon whom the command of the ship will fall in the event of theincapacity of the master;        (g) "Engineer officer" means a qualified officer in the enginedepartment;        (h) "Chief engineer officer" means the senior engineer officer,responsible for the mechanical propulsion of the ship;        (i) "Second engineer officer" means the engineer officer next inrank to the chief engineer officer and upon whom the responsibility forthe mechanical propulsion of the ship will fall in the event of theincapacity of the chief engineer officer;        (j) "Assistant engineer officer" means a person under training tobecome an engineer officer and designated as such by national law orregulations;        (k) "Radio officer" means a person holding a first class or secondclass radiotelegraph operator\'s certificate or a radiocommunicationoperator\'s general certificate for the maritime mobile service issuedunder the provisions of the Radio Regulations, who is employed in theradiotelegraph station of a ship which is required to have such a stationby the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea;        (l) "Radiotelephone operator" means a person holding anappropriate certificate issued under the provisions of the RadioRegulations;        (m) "Rating" means a member of the ship\'s crew other than themaster or an officer;        (n) "Near-coastal voyages" means voyages in the vicinity of aParty as defined by that Party;        (o) "Propulsion power" means the power in kilowatts which appearson the ship\'s Certificate of Registry or other official document *;    [* It is assumed that the power so appearing on the Certificate ofRegistry or other official document is the total maximum continuous ratedoutput power of all the ship\'s main propulsion machinery.]        (p) "Radio duties" include, as appropriate, watchkeeping andtechnical maintenance and repairs in accordance with the RadioRegulations, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Seaand, at the discretion of each Administration, the relevant IMCOrecommendations;        (q) "Oil tanker" means a ship constructed and used for thecarriage of petroleum and petroleum products in bulk;        (r) "Chemical tanker" means a ship constructed and used for thecarriage in bulk of any liquid chemical listed in the IMCO "Code for theConstruction and Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk".        (s) "Liquefied gas tanker" means a ship constructed and used forthe carriage in bulk of any liquefied gas listed in the IMCO "Code for theConstruction and Equipment of Ships carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk".          Regulation I/2 Content of Certificates and Form of Endorsement    1. Certificates shall be in the official language or languages of theissuing country. If the language used in not English, the text shallinclude a translation into that language.    2. In respect of radio officers and radiotelephone operators,Administrations may:        (a) include the additional knowledge required by the relevantRegulations of the Annex to the Convention in the examination for theissue of a certificate complying with the Radio Regulations; or        (b) issue a separate certificate indicating that the holder hasthe additional knowledge required by the Annex to the Convention.    3. The form of certificate endorsement required by Article VI of theConvention shall be as follows: Form of Endorsement of CertificatesENDORSEMENT OF CERTIFICATES (Official Seal)(Country)  Issued under the provisions of theINTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON STANDARDS OF TRAINING, CERTIFICATION ANDWATCHKEEPING FOR SEAFARERS, 1978           The Government of (Name) certifies Either**{-----------------------------------           I, the undersigned certify    [** Use one line or the other.]    that the present Certificate/Certificate No __________________***, isissued to ___________________(full name of person), who has been foundduly qualified in accordance with the provisions of Regulation______________________of the International Convention on Standards of Training,Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as___________________* with the following limitations only:    [*** Delete as appropriate.]    [* Insert Convention grade or class of Certificate.]  Insert herelimitations  ________________________________________________________________________ or "none" as}________________________________________________________________________ appropriate  ________________________________________________________________________ Date of issue of this endorsement:__________________________________________________                                            Signed___________________________________ (Official Seal)                             (Name andsignature of duly authorized official)  Date of birth of the holder of theCertificate_______________________________________ Signature of the holderof the Certificate___________________________________________          Regulation I/3 Principles Governing Near-Coastal Voyages    1. Any Party defining near-coastal voyages for the purpose of theConvention shall not impose training, experience or certificationrequirements on the seafarers serving on board the ships entitled to flythe flag of another Party and engaged on such voyages in a mannerresulting in more stringent requirements for such seafarers than forseafarers serving on board ships entitled to fly its own flag. In no caseshall any such Party impose requirements in respect of seafarers servingon board ships entitled to fly the flag of another Party in excess ofthose of the Convention in respect of ships not engaged on near-coastalvoyages.    2. With respect to ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party regularlyengaged on near-coastal voyages off the coast of another Party, the Partywhose flag the ship is entitled to fly shall prescribe training,experience and certification requirements for seafarers serving on suchships at least equal to those of the Party off whose coast the ship isengaged, provided that they do not exceed the requirements of theConvention in respect of ships not engaged on near-coastal voyages. A shipwhich extends its voyage beyond what is defined as a near-coastal voyageby a Party and enters waters not covered by that definition shall fulfilthe requirements of the Convention without relaxation under thisRegulation.    3. A Party may afford a ship which is entitled to fly its flag thebenefits of the near-coastal voyages provisions of the Convention when itis regularly engaged off the coast of a non-Party on near-coastal voyagesas defined by the Party.    4. Nothing in this Regulation shall in any way limit the jurisdictionof any State, whether or not a Party to the Convention.          Regulation I/4 Control Procedures    1. Control exercised by a duly authorized control officer underArticle X shall be limited to the following:        (a) verification in accordance with Article X (1) that allseafarers serving on board who are required to be certificated by theConvention hold a valid certificate or a valid dispensation;        (b) assessment of the ability of the seafarers of the ship tomaintain watchkeeping standards as required by the Convention if there aregrounds for believing that such standards are not being maintainedbecause, while in the port of a Party or in the approaches to that Port,the following have occurred:            (i) the ship has been involved in a collision, grounding orstranding, or            (ii) there has been a discharge of substances from the shipwhen underway, at anchor or at berth which is illegal under internationalconventions; or            (iii) the ship has been manoeuvred in an erratic or unsafemanner or navigational course markers or traffic separation schemes havenot been followed.    2. The control officer shall provide written information to the masterof the ship and the appropriate representative of the flag State accordingto Article X if, as a result of control action taken in accordance withparagraph 1, any of the following deficiencies are revealed:        (a) failure of seafarers, required to hold a certificate, to havean appropriate valid certificate or valid dispensation;        (b) failure of navigational or engineering watch arrangements toconform to the requirements specified for the ship by the flag State;        (c) absence in a watch of a person qualified to operate equipmentessential to safe navigation or the prevention of pollution;        (d) inability of the master to provide rested persons for thefirst watch at the commencement of a voyage and subsequent relievingwatches.    3. Failures to correct the deficiencies referred to in paragraph 2 (a)- to the extent that they relate to the certificates of the master, chiefengineer officer and officers in charge of navigational and engineeringwatches and, where relevant, the radio officer-and in paragraph 2 (b),shall be the only grounds under Article X on which a Party may detain aship.          CHAPTER II. MASTER-DECK DEPARTMENT           Regulation II/1 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping a Navi-gational Watch    1. Parties shall direct the attention of shipowners, ship operators,masters and watchkeeping personnel to the following principles which shallbe observed to ensure that a safe navigational watch is maintained at alltimes.    2. The master of every ship is bound to ensure that watchkeepingarrangements are adequate for maintaining a safe navigational watch. Underthe master\'s general direction, the officers of the watch are responsiblefor navigating the ship safely during their periods of duty when they willbe particularly concerned with avoiding collision and stranding.    3. The basic principles, including but not limited to the following,shall be taken into account on all ships.    4. Watch arrangements        (a) The composition of the watch shall at all times be adequateand appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions and shalltake into account the need for maintaining a proper look-out.        (b) When deciding the composition of the watch on the bridge whichmay include appropriate deck ratings, the following factors, inter alia,shall be taken into account:            (i) at no time shall the bridge be left unattended;            (ii) weather conditions, visibility and whether there isdaylight or darkness;            (iii) proximity of navigational hazards which may make itnecessary for the officer in charge of the watch to carry out additionalnavigational duties;            (iv) use and operational condition of navigational aids suchas radar or electronic position-indicating devices and any other equipmentaffecting the safe navigation of the ship;            (v) whether the ship is fitted with automatic steering;            (vi) any unusual demands on the navigational watch that mayarise as a result of special operational circumstances.    5. Fitness for duty    The watch system shall be such that the efficiency of watchkeepingofficers and watchkeeping ratings is not impaired by fatigue. Duties shallbe so organized that the first watch at the commencement of a voyage andthe subsequent relieving watches are sufficiently rested and otherwise fitfor duty.    6. Navigation        (a) The intended voyage shall be planned in advance taking intoconsideration all pertinent information and any course laid down shall bechecked before the voyage commences.        (b) During the watch the course steered, position and speed shallbe checked at sufficiently frequent intervals, using any availablenavigational aids necessary, to ensure thatthe ship follows the planned course.        (c) The officer of the watch shall have full knowledge of thelocation and operation of all safety and navigational equipment on boardthe ship and shall be aware and take account of the operating limitationsof such equipment.        (d) The officer in charge of a navigational watch shall not beassigned or undertake any duties which would interfere with the safenavigation of the ship.    7. Navigational equipment        (a) The officer of the watch shall make the most effective use ofall navigational equipment at his disposal.        (b) When using radar, the officer of the watch shall bear in mindthe necessity to comply at all times with the provisions on the use ofradar contained in the applicable regulations for preventing collisions atsea.        (c) In cases of need the officer of the watch shall not hesitateto use the helm, engines and sound signalling apparatus.    8. Navigational duties and responsibilities        (a) The officer in charge of the watch shall:            (i) keep his watch on the bridge which he shall in nocircumstances leave until properly relieved;            (ii) continue to be responsible for the safe navigation of theship, despite the presence of the master on the bridge, until the masterinforms him specifically that he has assumed that responsibility and thisis mutually understood;            (iii) notify the master when in any doubt as to what action totake in the interest of safety;            (iv) not hand over the watch to the relieving officer if hehas reason to believe that the latter is obviously not capable of carryingout his duties effectively, in which case he shall notify the masteraccordingly.        (b) On taking over the watch the relieving officer shall satisfyhimself as to the ship\'s estimated or true position and confirm itsintended track, course and speed and shall note any dangers to navigationexpected to be encountered during his watch.        (c) A proper record shall be kept of the movements and activitiesduring the watch relating to the navigation of the ship.    9. Look-out    In addition to maintaining a proper look-out for the purpose of fullyappraising the situation and the risk of collision, stranding and otherdangers to navigation, the duties of the lookout shall include thedetection of ships or aircraft in distress, shipwrecked persons, wrecksand debris. In maintaining a look-out the following shall be observed:        (a) the look-out must be able to give full attention to thekeeping of a proper look-out and no other duties shall be undertaken orassigned which could interfere with that task;        (b) the duties of the look-out and helmsman are separate and thehelmsman shall not be considered to be the look-out while steering, exceptin small ships where an unobstructed all-round view is provided at thesteering position and there is no impairment of night vision or otherimpediment to the keeping of a proper look-out. The officer in charge ofthe watch may be the sole look-out in daylight provided that on each suchoccasion:            (i) the situation has been carefully assessed and it has beenestablished without doubt that it is safe to do so;            (ii) full account has been taken of all relevant factorsincluding, but not limited to:                - state of weather                - visibility                - traffic density                - proximity of danger to navigation                - the attention necessary when navigating in or neartraffic separation schemes;            (iii) assistance is immediately available to be summoned tothe bridge when any change in the situation so requires.    10. Navigation with pilot embarked    Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, his presence on boarddoes not relieve the master or officer in charge of the watch from theirduties and obligations for the safety of the ship. The master and thepilot shall exchange information regarding navigation procedures, localconditions and the ship\'s characteristics. The master and officer of thewatch shall co-operate closely with the pilot and maintain an accuratecheck of the ship\'s position and movement.    11. Protection of the marine environment    The master and officer in charge of the watch shall be aware of theserious effects of operational or accidental pollution of the marineenvironment and shall take all possible precautions to prevent suchpollution, particularly within the framework of relevant international andport regulations.          Regulation II/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofMasters and Chief Mates of Ships of 200 Gross Register Toms or More    Master and chief mate of ships of 1600 gross register tons or more    1. Every master and chief mate of a sea-going ship of 1600 grossregister tons or more shall hold an appropriate certificate.    2. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight and hearing;        (b) meet the requirements for certification as an officer incharge of a navigational watch on ships of 200 gross register tons or moreand have approved sea-going service in that capacity:            (i) for certification as chief mate, not less than 18 months;however, this period may be reduced to not less than 12 months if theAdministration requires special training which it considers to beequivalent to at least six months\' service as officer in charge of anavigational watch;            (ii) for certification as master, not less than 36 months;however, this period may be reduced to not less than 24 months if not lessthan 12 months of such sea-going service has been served as chief mate, orif the Administration requires special training which it considers to beequivalent to such service;        (c) have passed appropriate examination to the satisfaction of theAdministration. Such examination shall include the material set out in theAppendix to this Regulation, except that the Administration may vary theseexamination requirements for masters and chief mates of ships of limitedsize engaged on near-coastal voyages, as it considers necessary, bearingin mind the effect on the safety of all ships which may be operating inthe same waters.    Master and chief mate of ships between 200 and 1600 gross registertons    3. Every master and chief mate of a sea-going ship of between 200 and1600 gross register tons shall hold an appropriate certificate.    4. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight and hearing;        (b) (i) for certification as chief mate, meet the requirements ofan officer in charge of a navigational watch on ships of 200 grossregister tons or more;            (ii) for certification as master, meet the requirements of anofficer in charge of a navigational watch on ships of 200 gross registertons or more and have approved seagoing service in that capacity of notless than 36 months; however, this period may be reduced to not less than24 months if not less than 12 months of such seagoing service has beenserved as chief mate, or if the Administration requires special trainingwhich it considers to be equivalent to such service;        (c) have passed appropriate examination to the satisfaction of theAdministration. Such examination shall include the material set out in theAppendix, except that the Administration may vary these examinationrequirements for masters and chief mates of ships engaged on near-coastalvoyages, as it considers appropriate, to exclude such material as is notapplicable to the waters or ships concerned, bearing in mind the effect onthe safety of all ships which may be operating in the same waters. General    5. The level of knowledge required under the different headings of theAppendix may be varied according to whether the certificate is beingissued at master or chief mate level, and according to whether thecertificate or certificates is applicable to ships of 1600 gross registertons or more, or to ships of between 200 and 1600 gross register tons.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION II/2 MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR CERTI-FICATION OF MASTERS AND CHIEF MATES OF SHIPS OF 200 GROSS REGISTER TONS ORMORE    1. The syllabus given below is compiled for examination of candidatesfor certification as master or chief mate of ships of 200 gross registertons or more. It is intended to expand and extend in depth the subjectscontained in Regulation II/4 - "Mandatory Minimum Requirements forCertification of Officers in Charge of a Navigational Watch on Ships of200 Gross Register Tons or More". Bearing in mind that a master hasultimate responsibility for the safety of the ship, its passengers, crewand cargo, and that a chief mate shall be in a position to assume thatresponsibility at any time, examination in these subjects shall bedesigned to test their ability to assimilate all available informationthat affects the safety of the ship.    2. Navigation and position determination        (a) Voyage planning and navigation for all conditions:            (i) by acceptable methods of plotting ocean tracks;            (ii) within restricted waters;            (iii) in ice;            (iv) in restricted visibility;            (v) in traffic separation schemes;            (vi) in areas of extensive tidal effects.        (b) Position determination:            (i) by celestial observations, including the use of sun,stars, moon and planets;            (ii) by terrestrial observations, including the ability to usebearings from landmarks and aids to navigation such as lighthouses,beacons and buoys in conjunction with appropriate charts, notices tomariners and other publications to assess the accuracy of the resultingposition fix;            (iii) using all modern ship electronic navigational aids tothe satisfaction of the Administration,  with specific knowledge of theiroperating principles, limitations,  sources of error, detection ofmisrepresentation of information and methods of correction to obtainaccurate position fixing.    3. Watchkeeping        (a) Demonstrate thorough knowledge of content, application andintent of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea,including those Annexes concerned with safe navigation.        (b) Demonstrate knowledge of Regulation II/1 - "Basic Principlesto be Observed in Keeping a Navigational Watch".    4. Radar equipment    Demonstrate in conjunction with the use of radar simulator or, whennot available, manoeuvring board, knowledge of the fundamentals of radarand ability in the operation and use of radar, and in the interpretationand analysis of information obtained from this equipment,  including:       (a) factors affecting performance and accuracy;       (b) setting up and maintaining displays;       (c) detection of misrepresentation of information, false echoes,sea return, etc.;       (d) range and bearing;       (e) identification of critical echoes;       (f) course and speed of other ships;       (g) time and distance of closest approach of crossing, meeting orovertaking ships;       (h) detecting course and speed changes of other ships;       (i) effect of changes in own ship\'s course or speed or both;       (j) application of the International Regulations for PreventingCollisions at Sea.    5. Compasses-magnetic and gyro    Ability to determine and correct the errors of the magnetic andgyro-compasses and knowledge of the means for correcting such errors.    6. Meteorology and oceanography        (a) Demonstrate the ability to understand and interpret a synopticchart and to forecast area weather, taking into account local weatherconditions.        (b) Knowledge of the characteristics of various weather systems,including tropical revolving storms and avoidance of storm centres and thedangerous quadrants.        (c) Knowledge of ocean current systems.        (d) Ability to use all appropriate navigational publications ontides and currents, including those in the English language.        (e) Ability to calculate tidal conditions.    7. Ship manoeuvring and handling    Manoeuvring and handling of a ship in all conditions, including thefollowing:        (a) manoeuvres when approaching pilot vessels or stations with dueregard to weather,  tide, headreach and stopping distances;        (b) handling a ship in rivers, estuaries, etc., having regard tothe effects of current,  wind and restricted water on the response to thehelm;        (c) manoeuvring in shallow water, including the reduction in keelclearance due to the effect of squat*, rolling and pitching;    [* Squat: the decrease in clearance beneath a ship which occurs whenthe ship moves through the water and is caused both by bodily sinkage andby change of trim. The effect is accentuated in shallow water and isreduced with a reduction in ship\'s speed.]        (d) interaction between passing ships and between own ship andnearby banks (canal effect);        (e) berthing and unberthing under various conditions of wind andtide with and without tugs;        (f) choice of anchorage, anchoring with one or two anchors inlimited anchorages and factors involved in determining the length ofanchor cable to be used;        (g) dragging; clearing fouled anchors;        (h) dry-docking, both with and without damage;        (i) management and handling of ships in heavy weather, includingassisting a ship or aircraft in distress, towing operations, means ofkeeping an unmanageable ship out of a sea trough, lessening drift and useof oil;        (j) precautions in manoeuvring for launching boats or liferafts inbad weather;        (k) methods of taking on board survivors from lifeboats orliferafts;        (l) ability to determine the manoeuvring and enginecharacteristics of major types of ships with special reference to stoppingdistances and turning circles at various draughts and speeds;        (m) the importance of navigating at reduced speed to avoid damagecaused by own ship\'s bow or stern wave;        (n) practical measures to be taken when navigating in ice orconditions of ice accumulation on board;        (o) the use of, and manoeuvring in, traffic separation schemes.    8. Ship stability *, construction and damage control    [* Masters and chief mates serving on small ships shall be fullyacquainted with the basic stability requirements of such ships.]        (a) Understanding fundamental principles of ship construction andthe theories and factors affecting trim and stability and measuresnecessary to preserve safe trim and stability.        (b) Knowledge of the effect on trim and stability of a ship in theevent of damage to and consequent flooding of a compartment and countermeasures to be taken.        (c) Demonstrate use of stability, trim and stress tables, diagramsand stress calculating equipment,  including knowledge of loading cargoesand ballasting in order to keep hull stresses within acceptable limits.        (d) General knowledge of the principal structural members of aship and the proper names of the various parts.        (e) Knowledge of IMCO recommendations concerning ship stability.    9. Ship power plants        (a) Operating principles of marine power plants.        (b) Ships\' auxiliary machinery.        (c) General knowledge of marine engineering terms.    10. Cargo handling and stowage        (a) The stowage and securing of cargoes on board ships, includingcargo gear.        (b) Loading and discharging operations, with special regard toloading and discharging of heavy weights.        (c) International regulations and recommendations relating to thecarriage of cargoes, in particular the International Maritime DangerousGoods Code (IMDG).        (d) Carriage of dangerous goods; precautions to be taken duringloading and discharging operations and the care of dangerous goods duringa voyage.        (e) Working knowledge of contents and application of currentrelevant tanker safety guides.        (f) Working knowledge of commonly used cargo piping and pumpingarrangements.        (g) Terms and definitions used to describe properties of commonoil cargoes, such as crude oil, middle distillates, naphtha.        (h) Pollution regulations; ballasting, tank cleaning and gasfreeing operations.        (i) Load-on-top procedures.    11. Fire prevention and fire-fighting appliances        (a) Organization of fire drills.        (b) Classes and chemistry of fire.        (c) Fire-fighting systems.        (d) Attendance at an approved fire-fighting course.        (e) Knowledge of regulations concerning fire-fighting equipment.    12. Emergency procedures        (a) Precautions when beaching a ship.        (b) Action to be taken prior to, and after, grounding.        (c) Floating a grounded ship, with and without assistance.        (d) Action to be taken following a collision.        (e) Temporary plugging of leaks.        (f) Measures for the protection and safety of passengers and crewin emergencies.        (g) Limiting damage and salving the ship following a fire orexplosion.        (h) Abandoning ship.        (i) Emergency steering, rigging and use of jury steering and themeans of rigging a jury rudder, where practicable.        (j) Rescuing persons from a ship in distress or from a wreck.        (k) Man-overboard procedures.    13. Medical care    A thorough knowledge of the use of the contents of the followingpublications:        (a) International Medical Guide for Ships or equivalent nationalpublications;        (b) Medical section of the International Code of Signals;        (c) Medical First Aid Guide For Use in Accidents InvolvingDangerous Goods.    14. Maritime law        (a) A knowledge of international maritime law as embodied ininternational agreements and conventions as they affect the specificobligations and responsibilities of the master,  particularly thoseconcerning safety and the protection of the marine environment. Regardshall be paid especially to the following subjects:            (i) certificates and other documents required to be carried onboard ships by international conventions, how they may be obtained and theperiod of their legal validity;            (ii) responsibilities under the relevant requirements of theInternational Convention on Load Lines;            (iii) responsibilities under the relevant requirements of theInternational Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea;            (iv) responsibilities under international conventions for theprevention of pollution from ships;            (v) maritime declarations of health, the requirements of theInternational Health Regulations;            (vi) responsibilities under the Convention on theInternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea;            (vii) responsibilities under other international instrumentsaffecting the safety of the ship, passengers, crew and cargo.        (b) The extent of knowledge of national maritime legislation isleft to the discretion of the Administration but shall include nationalarrangements for implementing international agreements and conventions.    15. Personnel management and training responsibilities    A knowledge of personnel management, organization and training aboardships.    16. Communications        (a) Ability to transmit and receive messages by Morse light and touse the International Code of Signals; where the Administration hasexamined candidates in these subjects at the lower levels ofcertification, they may have the option of not re-examining in thesesubjects for certification as master.        (b) Knowledge of procedures used in radiotelephone communicationsand ability to use radiotelephones,  in particular with respect todistress, urgency, safety and navigational messages.        (c) A knowledge of the procedures for emergency distress signalsby radiotelegraphy as prescribed in the Radio Regulations.    17. Life-saving    A thorough knowledge of life-saving appliance regulations(International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea), organisation ofabandon ship drills, lifeboats, liferafts and other life-saving equipment.    18. Search and rescue    A thorough knowledge of the IMCO Merchant Ship Search and RescueManual (MERSAR).    19. Methods for demonstration of proficiency    (a) Navigation    Demonstrate the use of sextant, pelorus, azimuth mirror and ability toplot position,  course, bearings.    (b) International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea        (i) use of small models displaying proper signals or lights, ornavigation light simulator;        (ii) manoeuvring board or radar simulator    (c) Radar        (i) radar simulator; or        (ii) manoeuvring boards.    (d) Fire-fighting    Attendance at an approved fire-fighting course.    (e) Communications    Visual and vocal practical test.    (f) Life-saving    Launching and handling of lifeboats and other life-saving appliances,including the donning of life-jackets.          Regulation II/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofOfficers in Charge of a Navigational Watch and of Masters of Ships ofLess than 200 Gross Register Tons    1. Ships not engaged on near-coastal voyages        (a) Every master serving on a sea-going ship of less than 200gross register tons not engaged on near-coastal voyages shall hold acertificate recognized by the Administration for service as master ofships of between 200 and 1600 gross register tons.        (b) Every officer in charge of a navigational watch serving on asea-going ship of less than 200 gross register tons not engaged onnear-coastal voyages shall hold an appropriate certificate for ships of200 gross register tons or more.    2. Ships engaged on near-coastal voyages        (a) Master            (i) Every master serving in a sea-going ship of less than 200gross register tons engaged on near-coastal voyages shall hold anappropriate certificate.            (ii) Every candidate for certification shall:                (1) be not less than 20 years of age;                (2) have approved sea-going service of not less than 12months as officer in charge of a navigational watch;                (3) satisfy the Administration that he possesses adequateknowledge appropriate to his duties on the ships concerned which shallinclude the subjects contained in the Appendix to this Regulation.        (b) Officer in charge of a navigational watch            (i) Every officer in charge of a navigational watch on asea-going ship of less than 200 gross register tons engaged onnear-coastal voyages shall hold an appropriate certificate.            (ii) Every candidate for certification shall:                (1) be not less than 18 years of age;                (2) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness,particularly regarding eyesight and hearing;                (3) satisfy the Administration that he has:                    - successfully undergone special training, includingan adequate period of appropriate sea-going service as required by theAdministration; or                    - completed approved sea-going service in the deckdepartment of not less than three years;                (4) satisfy the Administration that he possesses adequateknowledge appropriate to his duties on the ships concerned, which shallinclude the subjects contained in the Appendix.    3. Training    Training to achieve the necessary knowledge and practical experienceshall be based on Regulation II/1 - "Basic Principles to be Observed inKeeping a Navigational Watch" and relevant international regulations andrecommendations.    4. Exemptions    The Administration, if it considers that a ship\'s size and theconditions of its voyage are such as to render the application of the fullrequirements of this Regulation and its Appendix unreadable orimpracticable, may to that extent exempt the master and the officer incharge of a navigational watch on such a ship or class of ships from someof the requirements, bearing in mind the safety of all ships which may beoperating in the same waters.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION II/3 MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR CERTI-FICATION OF OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF A NAVIGATIONAL WATCH AND OF MASTERS OFSHIPS OF LESS THAN 200 GROSS REGISTER TONS    1. (a) Knowledge of the following:            (i) coastal navigation and, to the extent required, celestialnavigation;            (ii) International Regulations for Preventing Collisions atSea;            (iii) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG);            (iv) magnetic compass;            (v) radiotelephony and visual signalling;            (vi) fire prevention and fire-fighting appliances;            (vii) life-saving;            (viii) emergency procedures;            (ix) ship manoeuvring;            (x) ship stability;            (xi) meteorology;            (xii) small ship power plants;            (xiii) first aid;            (xiv) search and rescue;            (xv) prevention of pollution of the marine environment.        (b) In addition to the requirements of sub-paragraph (a),sufficient knowledge to operate safely all navigational aids and equipmentfitted aboard the ships concerned.        (c) The level of knowledge to be required in the subjectsspecified in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) shall be sufficient for theofficer of the watch to carry out his duties safely.    2. Every master serving on a sea-going ship of less than 200 grossregister tons shall, in addition to the requirements of paragraph 1 above,satisfy the Administration that he possesses the knowledge to carry outall the duties of such a master safely.          Regulation II/4 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofOfficers in Charge of a Navigational Watch on Ships of 200 Gross Regis-ter Tons or More    1. Every officer in charge of a navigational watch serving on asea-going ship of 200 gross register tons or more shall hold anappropriate certificate.    2. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) be not less than 18 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight and hearing;        (c) have approved sea-going service in the deck department of notless than three years which shall include at least six months of bridgewatchkeeping duties under the supervision of a qualified officer; however,an Administration may allow the substitution of a period of specialtraining for not more than two years of this approved sea-going service,provided the Administration is satisfied that such training is at leastequivalent in value to the period of sea-going service it replaces;        (d) satisfy the Administration by passing an appropriateexamination that he possesses adequate theoretical and practical knowledgeappropriate to his duties.    3. Certificates for service without restriction    For issue of certificates for services without restriction as to areaof operation, the examination shall test the adequacy of the candidate\'stheoretical and practical knowledge in the subjects shown in the Appendixto this Regulation.    4. Restricted certificates    For issue of restricted certificates for service on near-coastalvoyages, the Administration may omit the following subjects from thoseshown in the Appendix, bearing in mind the effect on the safety of allships which may be operating in the same waters:        (a) celestial navigation;        (b) electronic systems of position fixing and navigation forwaters not covered by such systems.    5. Level of knowledge        (a) The level of knowledge to be required in the subjects shown inthe Appendix shall be sufficient for the officer of the watch to carry outhis watchkeeping duties safely. In determining the appropriate level ofknowledge the Administration shall take into account the remarks undereach subject in the Appendix.        (b) Training to achieve the necessary theoretical knowledge andpractical experience shall be based on Regulation II/1- "Basic Principlesto be Observed in Keeping a Navigational Watch" and relevant internationalregulations and recommendations.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION II/4 MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR CERTI-FICATION OF OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF A NAVIGATIONAL WATCH ON SHIPS OF 200GROSS REGISTER TONS OR MORE    1. Celestial navigation    Ability to use celestial bodies to determine the ship\'s position andcompass errors.    2. Terrestrial and coastal navigation        (a) Ability to determine the ship\'s position by the use of:            (i) landmarks;            (ii) aids to navigation, including lighthouses, beacons andbuoys;            (iii) dead reckoning, taking into account winds, tides,currents and speed by propeller revolutions per minute and by log.        (b) Thorough knowledge of and ability to use navigational chartsand publications, such as sailing directions, tide tables, notices tomariners, radio navigational warnings and ships\' routeing information.    3. Radar navigation    Knowledge of the fundamentals of radar and ability in the operationand use of radar and ability to interpret and analyse information obtainedby use of radar including the following:    (a) factors affecting performance and accuracy;    (b) setting up and maintaining displays;    (c) detection of misrepresentation of information, false echoes, seareturn, etc.;    (d) range and bearing;    (e) identification of critical echoes;    (f) course and speed of other ships;    (g) time and distance of closest approach of crossing, meeting orovertaking ships;    (h) detecting course and speed changes of other ships;    (i) effect of changes in own ship\'s course or speed or both;    (j) application of the International Regulations for PreventingCollisions at Sea.    4. Watchkeeping        (a) Demonstrate thorough knowledge of content, application andintent of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea,including those Annexes concerned with safe navigation.        (b) Demonstrate knowledge of content of Regulation II/1-"BasicPrinciples to be Observed in Keeping a Navigational Watch".    5. Electronic systems of position fixing and navigation    Ability to determine the ship\'s position by the use of electronicnavigational aids to the satisfaction of the Administration.    6. Radio direction-finders and echo-sounders    Ability to operate the equipment and apply the information correctly.    7. Meteorology    Knowledge of shipborne meteorological instruments and theirapplication. Knowledge of the characteristics of various weather systems,reporting procedures and recording systems and the ability to apply themeteorological information available.    8. Compasses-magnetic and gyro    Knowledge of the principles of magnetic and gyro-compasses includingerrors and corrections. With regard to gyro-compasses, an understanding ofthe systems under the control of the master gyro and a knowledge of theoperation and care of the main types of gyro-compasses.    9. Automatic pilot    Knowledge of automatic pilot systems and procedures.    10. Radiotelephony and visual signalling        (a) Ability to transmit and receive messages by Morse light.        (b) Ability to use the International Code of Signals.        (c) Knowledge of procedures used in radiotelephone communicationsand ability to use radiotelephones,  in particular wit respect todistress, urgency, safety and navigational messages.    11. Fire prevention and fire-fighting appliances    (a) Ability to organize fire drills.    (b) Knowledge of classes and chemistry of fire.    (c) Knowledge of fire-fighting systems.    (d) Attendance at an approved fire-fighting course.    12. Life-saving    Ability to organize abandon ship drills and knowledge of the operationof lifeboats, liferafts,  buoyant apparatus and similar life-savingappliances along with their equipment, including portable radio apparatusand emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs). Knowledge ofsurvival at sea techniques.    13. Emergency procedures    Knowledge of the items listed in the appropriate Appendix of thecurrent edition of the ILO/IMCO "Document for Guidance".    14. Ship manoeuvring and handling    Knowledge of:        (a) the effects of various deadweights, draughts, trim, speed andunder keel clearance on turning circles and stopping distances;        (b) effects of wind and current on ship handling;        (c) manoeuvres for the rescue of man-overboard;        (d) squat, shallow water and similar effects;        (e) proper procedures for anchoring and mooring.    15. Ship stability        (a) Working knowledge and application of stability, trim andstress tables, diagrams and stress calculating equipment.        (b) Understanding of fundamental actions to be taken in the eventof partial loss of intact buoyancy.    16. English language    Adequate knowledge of the English language enabling the officer to usecharts and other nautical publications, to understand meteorologicalinformation and messages concerning ship\'s safety and operation and toexpress himself clearly in his communications with other ships or coaststations. Ability to understand and use the IMCO Standard MarineNavigational Vocabulary.    17. Ship construction    General knowledge of the principal structural members of a ship andthe proper names of the various parts.    18. Cargo handling and stowage    Knowledge of safe handling and stowage of cargoes and the effect ofthese factors on the safety of the ship.    19. Medical aid    Practical application of medical guides and advice by radio, includingthe ability to take effective action based on such knowledge in the caseof accidents or illnesses that are likely to occur on board ship.    20. Search and rescue    Knowledge of the IMCO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR).    21. Prevention of pollution of the marine environment    Knowledge of the precautions to be observed to prevent pollution ofthe marine environment.          Regulation II/5 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure the Con-tinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Masters and Deck Officers    1. Every master and every deck officer holding a certificate who isserving at sea or intends to return to sea after a period ashore shall, inorder to continue to qualify for sea-going service, be required at regularintervals not exceeding five years to satisfy the Administration as to:    (a) medical fitness, particularly regarding eyesight and hearing; and    (b) professional competence:        (i) by approved sea-going service as master or deck officer of atleast one year during the preceding five years; or        (ii) by virtue of having performed functions relating to theduties appropriate to the grade of certificate held which are consideredto be at least equivalent to the seagoing service required in paragraph1(b) (i); or        (iii) by one of the following:             -passing an approved test; or             -successfully completing an approved course or courses; or             -having completed approved sea-going service as a deckofficer for a period of not less than three months in a supernumerarycapacity immediately prior to taking up the rank to which he is entitledby virtue of his certificate.    2. The Administration shall, in consultation with those concerned,formulate or promote the formulation of a structure of refresher andupdating courses, either voluntary or mandatory,  as appropriated, formasters and deck officers who are serving at sea, especially forre-entrants to sea-going service. The Administration shall ensure thatarrangements are made to enable all persons concerned to attend suchcourses as appropriate to their experience and duties. Such courses shallbe approved by the Administration and include changes in marine technologyand relevant international regulations and recommendations concerning thesafety of life at sea and the protection of the marine environment.    3. Every master and deck officer shall, for continuing sea-goingservice on board ships for which special training requirements have beeninternationally agreed upon, successfully complete an approved relevanttraining.    4. The Administration shall ensure that the texts of recent changes ininternational regulations concerning the safety of life at sea and theprotection of the marine environment are made available to ships under itsjurisdiction.          Regulation II/6 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Ratings FormingPart of a Navigational Watch    1. The minimum requirements for a rating forming part of anavigational watch on a seagoing ship of 200 gross register tons or moreare set out in paragraph 2. These requirements are not those forcertification of able seamen, nor, except for ships of limited size, arethey minimum requirements for a rating who is to be the sole rating of anavigational watch. Administrations may require additional training andqualifications for a rating who is to be the sole rating of a navigationalwatch.    2. Every rating forming part of a navigational watch on a sea-goingship of 200 gross register tons or more shall:        (a) be not less than 16 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight and hearing;        (c) satisfy the Administration that he has:            (i) completed approved sea-going service, including not lessthan six months\' sea experience associated, in particular, withnavigational watchkeeping duties; or            (ii) successfully undergone special training, either pre-seaor aboard ship, including an adequate period of sea-going service asrequired by the Administration which shall be not less than two months;        (d) have experience or training which includes:            (i) basic principles of fire-fighting, first aid, personalsurvival techniques, health hazards and personal safety;            (ii) ability to understand orders and make himself understoodby the officer of the watch in matters relevant to his duties;            (iii) ability to steer and comply with helm orders, togetherwith sufficient knowledge of magnetic and gyro compasses for performanceof these duties;            (iv) ability to keep a proper look-out by sight and hearingand report the approximate bearing of a sound signal, light or otherobject in degrees or points;            (v) familiarity with the change-over from automatic pilot tohand steering and vice versa;            (vi) knowledge of the use of appropriate internalcommunication and alarm systems;            (vii) knowledge of pyrotechnic distress signals;            (viii) knowledge of his emergency duties;            (ix) knowledge of shipboard terms and definitions appropriateto his duties.    3. The experience, service or training required by paragraphs 2 (c)and (d) may be acquired through performance of duties associated withnavigational watchkeeping, but only if such duties are carried out underthe direct supervision of the master, officer in charge of thenavigational watch or a qualified rating.    4. Administrations shall ensure that an authorized document is issuedto every seafarer who by experience or training is qualified in accordancewith this Regulation to serve as a rating forming part of a navigationalwatch, or that his existing document is duly endorsed.    5. A seafarer may be considered by the Administration to have met therequirements of this Regulation if he has served in a relevant capacity inthe deck department for a period of not less than one year within the lastfive years preceding the entry into force of the Convention for thatAdministration.          Regulation II/7 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping a WatchinPort    1. On any ship safely moored or safely at anchor under normalcircumstances in port, the master shall arrange for an appropriate andeffective watch to be maintained for the purpose of safety.    2. In organizing the watches note shall be taken of the provisions ofthe "Recommendation on Principles and Operational Guidance for DeckOfficers in Charge of a Watch in Port" and the "Recommendation onPrinciples and Operational Guidance for Engineer Officers in Charge of anEngineering Watch in Port" adopted by the International Conference onTraining and Certification of Seafarers, 1978.          Regulation II/8 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for a Watch in PortonShips Carrying Hazardous Cargo    1. The master of every ship carrying cargo in bulk that ishazardous-whether it is, or may be, explosive, flammable, toxic,health-threatening or environment polluting-shall ensure that a safe deckwatch and a safe engineering watch are maintained by the readyavailability on board of a duly qualified officer or officers, and ratingswhere appropriate, even when the ship is safely moored or safely at anchorin port.    2. The master of every ship carrying hazardous cargo other than inbulk-whether it is,  or may be, explosive, flammable, toxic,health-threatening or environment polluting-shall in organizing safewatchkeeping arrangements take full account of the nature, quantity,packing and stowage of the hazardous cargo and of any special conditionson board, afloat and ashore.    3. In organizing the watches full account shall be taken of the"Recommendation on Principles and Operational Guidance for Deck Officersin Charge of a Watch in Port" and the "Recommendation on Principles andOperational Guidance for Engineer Officers in Charge of an EngineeringWatch in Port" adopted by the International Conference on Training andCertification of Seafarers, 1978.CHARTER III. ENGINE DEPARTMENT          Regulation III/1 Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping an En-gineering Watch    1. Parties shall direct the attention of shipowners, ship operators,masters, chief engineer officers and watchkeeping personnel to thefollowing principles which shall be observed to ensure that a safeengineering watch is maintained at all times.    2. The term "watch" is used in this Regulation to mean either a groupof personnel composing the watch or a period of responsibility for anengineer officer during which his physical presence in the machinery spacemay or may not be required.    3. The basic principles, including but not limited to the following,shall be taken into account on all ships.    4. General        (a) The chief engineer officer of every ship is bound, inconsultation with the master, to ensure that watchkeeping arrangements areadequate to maintain a safe watch. When deciding the composition of thewatch, which may include appropriate engine room ratings, the followingcriteria, inter alia, shall be taken into account:            (i) type of ship;            (ii) type and condition of the machinery;            (iii) special modes of operation dictated by conditions suchas weather, ice, contaminated water, shallow water, emergency conditions,damage containment or pollution abatement;            (iv) qualifications and experience of the watch;            (v) safety of life, ship, cargo and port, and protection ofthe environment;            (vi) observance of international, national and localregulations;            (vii) maintaining the normal operations of the ship.        (b) Under the direction of the chief engineer officer, theengineer officer in charge of the watch shall be responsible for theinspection, operation and testing, as required, of all machinery andequipment under his responsibility. The engineer officer in charge of awatch is the chief engineer officer\'s representative and his primaryresponsibility, at all times, shall be the safe and efficient operationand up-keep of machinery affecting the safety of the ship.        (c) The chief engineer officer shall, in consultation with themaster, determine in advance the needs of the intended voyage, taking intoconsideration the requirements for fuel, water, lubricants, chemicals,expendable and other spare parts, tools, supplies and any otherrequirements.    5. Operation        (a) The engineer officer in charge of the watch shall ensure thatthe established watchkeeping arrangements are maintained. Under hisgeneral direction engine room ratings,  if forming part of the watch,shall be required to assist in the safe and efficient operation of thepropulsion machinery and the auxiliary equipment.        (b) At the commencement of the engineering watch, the currentoperational parameters and condition of all machinery shall be verified.Any machinery not functioning properly,  expected to malfunction orrequiring special service, shall be noted along with any action alreadytaken. Plans shall be made for any further action if required.        (c) The engineer officer in charge of the watch shall ensure thatthe main propulsion plant and auxiliary systems are kept under constantsurveillance, inspections are made of the machinery and steering gearspaces at suitable intervals and appropriate action is taken to remedy anymalfunction discovered.        (d) When the machinery spaces are in the manned condition, theengineer officer in charge of the watch shall at all times be readilycapable of operating the propulsion equipment in response to needs forchanges in direction or speed. When the machinery spaces are in theperiodic unmanned condition, the designated duty engineer officer incharge of the watch shall be immediately available and on call to attendthe machinery spaces.        (e) All bridge orders shall be promptly executed. Changes indirection or speed of the main propulsion unit shall be recorded, exceptwhere an Administration determines that the size or characteristics of aparticular ship make such recording impracticable. The engineer officer incharge of the watch shall ensure that the main propulsion unit controls,when in the manual mode of operation, are continuously attended understandby or manoeuvring conditions.        (f) The engineer officer in charge of the watch shall not beassigned or undertake any duties which would interfere with hissupervisory duty in respect of the main propulsion system and itsancillary equipment and he shall ensure that the main propulsion systemand auxiliary equipment are kept under constant surveillance until he isproperly relieved.        (g) Due attention shall be paid to the maintenance and support ofall machinery, including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and pneumaticsystems, their control apparatus and associated safety equipment, allaccommodation service systems equipment and the recording of stores andspare gear usage.        (h) The chief engineer officer shall ensure that the engineerofficer in charge of the watch is informed of all preventive maintenance,damage control, or repair operations to be performed during the watch.The engineer officer in charge of the watch shall be responsible for theisolation, by-passing and adjustment of all machinery under hisresponsibility that is to be worked on, and shall record all work carriedout.        (i) Before going off duty, the engineer officer in charge of thewatch shall ensure that all events related to the main and auxiliarymachinery are suitably recorded.        (j) To avoid any danger to the safety of the ship and its crew,the engineer officer in charge of the watch shall notify the bridgeimmediately in the event of fire, impending actions in machinery spacesthat may cause reduction in ship\'s speed, imminent steering failure,stoppage of the ship\'s propulsion system or any alteration in thegeneration of electric power, or similar threat to safety. Thisnotification, where possible,  shall be accomplished before changes aremade in order to afford the bridge the maximum available time to takewhatever actions are possible to avoid a potential marine casualty.        (k) When the engine room is put in a standby condition, theengineer officer in charge of the watch shall ensure that all machineryand equipment which may be used during manoeuvring is in a state ofimmediate readiness and that an adequate reserve of power is available forsteering gear and other requirements.    6. Watch requirements        (a) Every member of the watch shall be familiar with his assignedwatchkeeping duties.        In addition, every member shall have with respect to that ship:            (i) knowledge of the use of appropriate internal communicationsystems;            (ii) knowledge of escape routes from machinery spaces;            (iii) knowledge of engine room alarm systems and the abilityto distinguish between                                                 |----|the various alarms with special reference to the | CO | alarm;                                                 |   2|                                                 |----|            (iv) knowledge of the positions and use of the fire-fightingequipment in the machinery spaces.       (b) The composition of an underway watch shall, at all times, beadequate to ensure the safe operation of all machinery affecting theoperation of the ship, in either automated or manual mode and beappropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. To achievethis, the following, inter alia, shall be taken into account:            (i) adequate supervision, at all times, of machinery affectingthe safe operation of the ship;            (ii) condition and reliability of any remotely operatedpropulsion and steering equipment and their controls, control location andthe procedures involved in placing them in a manual mode of operation inthe event of bread-down or emergency;            (iii) location and operation of fixed fire detection, fireextinction or fire containment devices and apparatus;            (iv) use and operational condition of auxiliary, standby andemergency equipment affecting the safe navigation, mooring or dockingoperations of the ship;            (v) steps and procedures necessary to maintain the conditionof machinery installations in order to ensure their efficient operationduring all modes of ship operation;            (vi) any other demands on the watch which may arise as aresult of special operating circumstances.        (c) At an unsheltered anchorage the chief engineer officer shallconsult with the master whether or not to maintain an underway watch.    7. Fitness for duty    The watch system shall be such that the efficiency of the watch is notimpaired by fatigue. Duties shall be so organized by the chief engineerofficer that the first watch at the commencement of a voyage and thesubsequent relieving watches are sufficiently rested and otherwise fit forduty.    8. Protection of the marine environment    All engineer officers and engine room ratings shall be aware of theserious effects of operational or accidental pollution of the marineenvironment and shall take all possible precautions to prevent suchpollution, particularly within the framework of relevant international andport regulations.          Regulation III/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofChief Engineer Officers and Second Engineer Officers of Ships PoweredbyMain Propulsion Machinery of 3000 kW Propulsion Power or More    1. Every chief engineer officer and second engineer officer of asea-going ship powered by main propulsion machinery of 3000 kW propulsionpower or more shall hold an appropriate certificate.    2. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, includingeyesight and hearing.        (b) meet the requirements for certification as an engineer officerin charge of a watch; and            (i) for certification as second engineer officer, have notless than 12 months\' approved sea-going service as assistant engineerofficer or engineer officer;            (ii) for certification as chief engineer officer, have notless than 36 months\' approved sea-going service of which not less than 12months shall be served as an engineer officer in a position ofresponsibility while qualified to serve as second engineer officer;        (c) have attended an approved practical fire-fighting course;        (d) have passed appropriate examination to the satisfaction of theAdministration. Such examination shall include the material set out in theAppendix to this Regulation, except that the Administration may vary theseexamination requirements for officers of ships with limited propulsionpower that are engaged on near-coastal voyages, as it considers necessary,bearing in mind the effect on the safety of all ships which may beoperating in the same waters.    3. Training to achieve the necessary theoretical knowledge andpractical experience shall take into account relevant internationalregulations and recommendations.    4. The level of knowledge required under the different paragraphs ofthe Appendix may be varied according to whether the certificate is beingissued at chief engineer officer and second engineer officer level.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION III/2 MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR CERTI-FICATION OF CHIEF ENGINEER OFFICERS AND SECOND ENGINEER OFFICERS OF SHIPSPOWERED BY MAIN PROPULSION MACHINERY OF 3000 kW PROPULSION POWER OR MORE    1. The syllabus given below is compiled for examination of candidatesfor certification as chief engineer officer or second engineer officer ofships powered by main propulsion machinery of 3000 kW propulsion power ormore. Bearing in mind that a second engineer officer shall be in aposition to assume the responsibilities of a chief engineer officer at anytime, examination in these subjects shall be designed to test thecandidate\'s ability to assimilate all available information that affectsthe safe operation of the ship\'s machinery.    2. With respect to paragraph 4(a) below, the Administration may omitknowledge requirements for types of propulsion machinery other than thosemachinery installations for which the certificate to be awarded shall bevalid. A certificate awarded on such a basis shall not be valid for anycategory of machinery installation which has been omitted until theengineer officer proves to be competent in these items to the satisfactionof the Administration. Any such limitation shall be stated in thecertificate.    3. Every candidate shall possess theoretical knowledge in thefollowing subjects:        (a) thermodynamics and heat transmission;        (b) mechanics and hydromechanics;        (c) operational principles of ships\' power installations (diesel,steam and gas turbine) and refrigeration;        (d) physical and chemical properties of fuels and lubricants;        (e) technology of materials;        (f) chemistry and physics of fire and extinguishing agents;        (g) marine electrotechnology, electronics and electricalequipment;        (h) fundamentals of automation, instrumentation and controlsystems;        (i) naval architecture and ship construction, including damagecontrol.    4. Every candidate shall possess adequate practical knowledge in atleast the following subjects:        (a) operation and maintenance of:            (i) marine diesel engines;            (ii) marine steam propulsion plant;            (iii) marine gas turbines;        (b) operation and maintenance of auxiliary machinery, includingpumping and piping systems,  auxiliary boiler plant and steering gearsystems;        (c) operation, testing and maintenance of electrical and controlequipment;        (d) operation and maintenance of cargo handling equipment and deckmachinery;        (e) detection of machinery malfunction, location of faults andaction to prevent damage;        (f) organization of safe maintenance and repair procedures;        (g) methods of, and aids for, fire prevention, detection andextinction;        (h) methods and aids to prevent pollution of the environment byships;        (i) regulations to be observed to prevent pollution of the marineenvironment;        (j) effects of marine pollution on the environment;        (k) first aid related to injuries which might be expected inmachinery spaces and use of first aid equipment;        (l) functions and use of life-saving appliances;        (m) methods of damage control;        (n) safe working practices.    5. Every candidate shall possess a knowledge of international maritimelaw embodied in international agreements and conventions as they affectthe specific obligations and responsibilities of the engine department,particularly those concerning safety and the protection of the marineenvironment. The extent of knowledge of national maritime legislation isleft to the discretion of the Administration but shall include nationalarrangements for implementing international agreements and conventions.    6. Every candidate shall possess a knowledge of personnel management,organization and training aboard ships.          Regulation III/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofChief Engineer Officers and Second Engineer Officers of Ships PoweredbyMain Propulsion Machinery between 750 kW and 3000 kW Propulsion Power    1. Every chief engineer officer and second engineer officer of asea-going ship powered by main propulsion machinery of between 750 and3000 kW propulsion power shall hold an appropriate certificate.    2. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, includingeyesight and hearing;        (b) meet the requirements for certification as an engineer officerin charge of a watch; and            (i) for certification as second engineer officer, have notless than 12 months\' approved sea-going service as assistant engineerofficer or engineer officer;            (ii) for certification as chief engineer officer, have notless than 24 months\' approved sea-going service of which not less than 12months shall be served while qualified to serve as second engineerofficer;        (c) have attended an approved practical fire-fighting course;        (d) have passed appropriate examination to the satisfaction of theAdministration. Such examination shall include the material set out in theAppendix to this Regulation, except that the Administration may vary therequirements for examination and sea-going service for officers of shipsengaged on near-coastal voyages, bearing in mind the types of automaticand remotely operated controls with which such ships are fitted and theeffect on the safety of all ships which may be operating in the samewaters.    3. Training to achieve the necessary theoretical knowledge andpractical experience shall take into account relevant internationalregulations and recommendations.    4. The level of knowledge required under the different paragraphs ofthe Appendix may be varied according to whether the certificate is beingissued at chief engineer officer or second engineer officer level.    5. Every engineer officer who is qualified to serve as second engineerofficer of ships powered by main propulsion machinery of 3000 kWpropulsion power or more, may serve as chief engineer officer of shipspowered by main propulsion machinery of less than 3000 kW propulsion powerprovided that not less than 12 months\' approved sea-going service shallhave been served as an engineer officer in a position of responsibility.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION III/3 MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR CERTI-FICATION OF CHIEF ENGINEER OFFICERS AND SECOND ENGINEER OFFICERS OF SHIPSPOWERED BY MAIN PROPULSION MACHINERY OF BETWEEN 750 kW AND 3000 kW PROPUL-SION POWER    1. The syllabus given below is compiled for examination of candidatesfor certification as chief engineer officer or second engineer officer ofships powered by main propulsion machinery of between 750 kW and 3000 kWpropulsion power. Bearing in mind that a second engineer officer shall bein a position to assume the responsibilities of the chief engineer officerat any time, examination in these subjects shall be designed to test thecandidate\'s ability to assimilate all available information that affectsthe safe operation of the ship\'s machinery.    2. With respect to paragraphs 3(d) and 4(a) below, the Administrationmay omit knowledge requirements for types of propulsion machinery otherthan those machinery installations for which the certificate to be awardedshall be valid. A certificate awarded on such a basis shall not be validfor any category of machinery installation which has been omitted untilthe engineer officer proves to be competent in these items to thesatisfaction of the Administration. Any such limitation shall be stated inthe certificate.    3. Every candidate shall possess sufficient elementary theoreticalknowledge to understand the basic principles involved in the followingsubjects:    (a) combustion processes;    (b) heat transmission;    (c) mechanics and hydromechanics;    (d) (i) marine diesel engines;        (ii) marine steam propulsion plant;        (iii) marine gas turbines;    (e) steering gear systems;    (f) properties of fuels and lubricants;    (g) properties of materials;    (h) fire-extinguishing agents;    (i) marine electrical equipment;    (j) automation, instrumentation and control systems;    (k) ship construction, including damage control;    (l) auxiliary systems.    4. Every candidate shall possess adequate practical knowledge, in atleast the following subjects:        (a) operation and maintenance of:            (i) marine diesel engines;            (ii) marine steam propulsion plant;            (iii) marine gas turbines;        (b) operation and maintenance of auxiliary machinery systems,including steering gear systems;        (c) operation, testing and maintenance of electrical and controlequipment;        (d) operation and maintenance of cargo handling equipment and deckmachinery;        (e) detection of machinery malfunction, location of faults andaction to prevent damage;        (f) organization of safe maintenance and repair procedures;        (g) methods of, and aids for, fire prevention, detection andextinction;        (h) regulations to be observed regarding pollution of the marineenvironment and methods and aids to prevent such pollution;        (i) first aid related to injuries which might be expected inmachinery spaces and use of first aid equipment;        (j) functions and use of life-saving appliances;        (k) methods of damage control with specific reference to action tobe taken in the event of flooding of sea water into the engine room;        (l) safe working practices.    5. Every candidate shall possess a knowledge of international maritimelaw as embodied in international agreements and conventions as they affectthe specific obligations and responsibilities of the engine department,particularly those concerning safety and the protection of the marineenvironment. The extent of knowledge of national maritime legislation isleft to the discretion of the Administration but shall include nationalarrangements for implementing international agreements and conventions.    6. Every candidate shall possess a knowledge of personnel management,organization and training aboard ships.          Regulation III/4 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofEngineer Officers in Charge of a Watch in a Traditionally Manned EngineRoom or Designated Duty Engineer Officers in a Periodically Unmanned En-gine Room    1. Every engineer officer in charge of a watch in a traditionallymanned engine room or the designated duty engineer officer in aperiodically unmanned engine room on a sea-going ship powered by mainpropulsion machinery of 750 kW propulsion power or more shall hold anappropriate certificate.    2. Every candidate for certification shall:        (a) be not less than 18 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, includingeyesight and hearing;        (c) have not less than a total of three years approved educationor training, relevant to the duties of a marine engineer;        (d) have completed an adequate period of sea-going service whichmay have been included within the period of three years stated insub-paragraph (c);        (e) satisfy the Administration that he has the theoretical andpractical knowledge of the operation and maintenance of marine machineryappropriate to the duties of an engineer officer;        (f) have attended an approved practical fire-fighting course;        (g) have knowledge of safe working practices.    The Administration may vary the requirement of sub-paragraphs (c) and(d) for engineer officers of ships powered by main propulsion machinery ofless than 3000 kW propulsion power engaged on near-coastal voyages,bearing in mind the effect on the safety of all ships which may beoperating in the same waters.    3. Every candidate shall have knowledge of the operation andmaintenance of main and auxiliary machinery, which shall include knowledgeof relevant regulatory requirements and also knowledge of at least thefollowing specific items:    (a) Watchkeeping routines        (i) duties associated with taking over and accepting a watch;        (ii) routine duties undertaken during a watch;        (iii) maintenance of the machinery space log book and thesignificance of readings taken;        (iv) duties associated with handing over a watch.    (b) Main and auxiliary machinery        (i) assisting in the preparation of main machinery and preparationof auxiliary machinery for operation;        (ii) operation of steam boilers, including combustion system;        (iii) methods of checking water level in steam boilers and actionnecessary if water level is abnormal;        (iv) location of common faults of machinery and plant in engineand boiler rooms and action necessary to prevent damage.    (c) Pumping systems        (i) routine pumping operations;        (ii) operation of bilge, ballast and cargo pumping systems.    (d) Generating plant        Preparing, starting, coupling and changing over alternators orgenerators.    (e) Safety and emergency procedures        (i) safety precautions to be observed during a watch and immediateactions to be taken in the event of a fire or accident, with particularreference to oil systems.        (ii) safe isolation of electrical and other types of plant andequipment required before personnel are permitted to work on such plantand equipment.    (f) Anti-pollution procedures        The precautions to be observed to prevent pollution of theenvironment by oil, cargo residue, sewage, smoke or other pollutants. Theuse of pollution prevention equipment,  including oily water separators,sludge tank systems and sewage disposal plant.    (g) First aid        Basic first aid related to injuries which might be expected inmachinery spaces.    4. Where steam boilers do not form part of a ship\'s machinery, theAdministration may omit the knowledge requirements of paragraphs 3 (b)(ii) and (iii). A certificate awarded on such a basis shall not be validfor service on ships in which steam boilers form part of a ship\'smachinery until the engineer officer proves to be competent in the omitteditems to the satisfaction of the Administration. Any such limitationsshall be stated in the certificate.    5. The training to achieve the necessary theoretical knowledge andpractical experience shall take into account relevant internationalregulations and recommendations.          Regulation III/5 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure the Con-tinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Engineer Officers    1. Every engineer officer holding a certificate who is serving at seaor intends to return to sea after a period ashore shall, in order tocontinue to qualify for sea-going service in the rank appropriate to hiscertificate, be required at regular intervals not exceeding five years tosatisfy the Administration as to:    (a) medical fitness, including eyesight and hearing; and    (b) professional competence:        (i) by approved service as an engineer officer of at least oneyear during the preceding five years; or        (ii) by virtue of having performed functions relating to theduties appropriate to the grade of certificate held which is considered tobe at least equivalent to the seagoing service required in paragraph 1(b) (i); or        (iii) by one of the following:              -passing an approved test; or              -successfully completing an approved course or courses; or              -having completed approved sea-going service as an engineerofficer for a period of not less than three months in a supernumerarycapacity; or in a lower rank than that for which he holds the certificate,immediately prior to taking up the rank to which he is entitled by virtueof his certificate.    2. The course or courses referred to in paragraph 1 (b) (iii) shallinclude, in particular,  changes in the relevant international regulationsand recommendations concerning the safety of life at sea and theprotection of the marine environment.    3. The Administration shall ensure that the texts of recent changes ininternational regulations concerning the safety of life at sea and theprotection of the marine environment are made available to ships under itsjurisdiction.          Regulation III/6 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for Ratings Form-ing Part of an Engine Room Watch    1. The minimum requirements for a rating if forming part of an engineroom watch shall be set out in paragraph 2. These requirements are notfor:    (a) a rating nominated as the assistant to the engineer officer incharge of the watch;    (b) a rating who is under training;    (c) a rating whose duties while on watch are of an unskilled nature.    2. Every rating forming part of an engine room watch shall:    (a) be not less than 16 years of age;    (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, includingeyesight and hearing;    (c) satisfy the Administration as to:        (i) experience or training regarding fire-fighting, basic firstaid, personal survival techniques, health hazards and personal safety;        (ii) ability to understand orders, and make himself understood inmatters relevant to his duties;    (d) satisfy the Administration that he has:        (i) shore experience relevant to his sea-going duties supplementedby an adequate period of sea-going service as required by theAdministration; or        (ii) undergone special training either pre-sea or on board ship,including an adequate period of sea-going service as required by theAdministration; or        (iii) approved sea-going service of at least six months.    3. Every such rating shall have knowledge of:        (a) engine room watchkeeping procedures and the ability to carryout a watch routine appropriate to his duties;        (b) safe working practices as related to engine room operations;        (c) terms used in machinery spaces and names of machinery andequipment relative to his duties;        (d) basic environmental protection procedures.    4. Every rating required to keep a boiler watch shall have knowledgeof the safe operation of boilers, and shall have the ability to maintainthe correct water levels and steam pressures.    5. Every rating forming part of an engine room watch shall be familiarwith his watchkeeping duties in the machinery spaces on the ship on whichhe is to serve. In particular, with respect to that ship the rating shallhave:        (a) knowledge of the use of appropriate internal communicationsystems;        (b) knowledge of escape routes from machinery spaces;        (c) knowledge of engine room alarm systems and ability todistinguish between the various alarms with special reference to fireextinguishing gas alarms;        (d) familiarity with the location and use of fire-fightingequipment in the machinery spaces.    6. A seafarer may be considered by the Administration to have met therequirements of this Regulation if he has served in a relevant capacity inthe engine department for a period of not less than one year within thelast five years preceding the entry into force of the Convention for thatAdministration.          CHAPTER IV. RADIO DEPARTMENT RADIO WATCHKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE    Explanatory note:    Mandatory provisions relating to radio watchkeeping are set forth inthe Radio Regulations,  and the safety radio watchkeeping and maintenanceprovisions are set forth in the International Convention for the Safety ofLife at Sea and in the Radio Regulations, are these two sets ofRegulations may be amended and are in force. Attention is also directed tothe relevant resolutions adopted by the International Conference onTraining and Certification of Seafarers,  1978.          Regulation IV/1 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofRadio Officers    1. Every radio officer in charge of, or performing, radio duties in aship shall hold an appropriate certificate or certificates issued orrecognised by the Administration under the provisions of the RadioRegulations, and have adequate qualifying service.    2. In addition, a radio officer shall:        (a) be not less than 18 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight, hearing and speech;        (c) meet the requirements of the Appendix to this Regulation.    3. Every candidate for a certificate shall be required to pass anexamination or examinations to the satisfaction of the Administrationconcerned.    4. The level of knowledge required for certification shall besufficient for the radio officer to carry out this radio duties safely andefficiently. In determining the appropriate level of knowledge and thetraining necessary to achieve that knowledge and practical ability, theAdministration shall take into account the requirements of the RadioRegulations and the Appendix to this Regulation. Administrations shallalso take into account the relevant resolutions adopted by theInternational Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers, 1978,and relevant IMCO recommendations.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION IV/1 MINIMUM ADDITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND TR-AINING REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIO OFFICERS    In addition to satisfying the requirements for the issue of acertificate in compliance with the Radio Regulations, radio officers shallhave knowledge and training, including practical training, in thefollowing:        (a) the provision of radio services in emergencies, including:            (i) abandon ship;            (ii) fire aboard ship;            (iii) partial or full breakdown of the radio station;        (b) the operation of lifeboats, liferafts, buoyant apparatus andtheir equipment, with special reference to portable and fixed lifeboatradio apparatus and emergency position-indicating radio beacons;        (c) survival at sea;        (d) first aid;        (e) fire prevention and fire-fighting with particular reference tothe radio installation;        (f) preventive measures for the safety of ship and personnel inconnexion with hazards related to radio equipment, including electrical,radiation, chemical and mechanical hazards;        (g) the use of the IMCO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual(MERSAR) with particular reference to radiocommunications;        (h) ship position-reporting systems and procedures;        (i) the use of the International Code of Signals and the IMCOStandard Marine Navigational Vocabulary;        (j) radio medical systems and procedures.          Regulation IV/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements to Ensure the Con-tinued Proficiency and Updating of Knowledge for Radio Officers    1. Every radio officer holding a certificate or certificates issued orrecognized by the Administration shall, in order to continue to qualifyfor sea-going service, be required to satisfy the Administration as to thefollowing:        (a) medical fitness, particularly regarding eyesight, hearing andspeech, at regular intervals not exceeding five years; and        (b) professional competence:            (i) by approved radiocommunications service as a radio officerwith no single interruption of service exceeding five years;            (ii) following such interruption, by passing an approved testor successfully completing an approved training course or courses at seaor ashore, which shall include elements that are of direct relevance tothe safety of life at sea and modern radiocommunication equipment and mayalso include radionavigation equipment.    2. When new modes, equipment or practices are being introduced aboardships entitled to fly its flag, the Administration may require radioofficers to pass an approved test or successfully complete an appropriatetraining course or courses, at sea or ashore, with particular reference tosafety duties.    3. Every radio officer shall, to continue to qualify for sea-goingservice on board particular types of ships for which special trainingrequirements have been internationally agreed upon,  successfully completeapproved relevant training or examinations which shall take into accountrelevant international regulations and recommendations.    4. The Administration shall ensure that the texts of recent changes ininternational regulations relating to radiocommunications and relevant tothe safety of life at sea, are available to ships under its jurisdiction.    5. Administrations are encouraged, in consultation with thoseconcerned, to formulate or promote the formulation of a structure ofrefresher and updating courses, either voluntary or mandatory, asappropriate, at sea or ashore, for radio officers who are serving at seaand especially for re-entrants to sea-going service. The course or coursesshall include elements that are of direct relevance to radio duties andinclude changes in marine radiocommunication technology and relevantinternational regulations and recommendations concerning the safety oflife at sea.          Regulation IV/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for CertificationofRadiotelephone Operators    1. Every radiotelephone operator in charge of, or performing, radioduties in a ship shall hold an appropriate certificate or certificatesissued or recognized by the Administration under the provisions of theRadio Regulations.    2. In addition, such radiotelephone operator of a ship which isrequired to have a radiotelephone station by the International Conventionfor the Safety of Life at Sea, shall:        (a) be not less than 18 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness, particularlyregarding eyesight, hearing and speech;        (c) meet the requirements of the Appendix to this Regulation.    3. Every candidate for a certificate shall be required to pass anexamination or examinations to the satisfaction of the Administrationconcerned.    4. The level of knowledge required for certification shall besufficient for the radiotelephone operator to carry out his radio dutiessafely and efficiently. In determining the appropriate level of knowledgeand the training necessary to achieve that knowledge and practicalability,  the Administration shall take into account the requirements ofthe Radio Regulations and the Appendix to this Regulation. Administrationsshall also take into account the relevant resolutions adopted by theInternational Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers 1978,and relevant IMCO recommendations.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION IV/3 MINIMUM ADDITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND TR-AINING REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIOTELEPHONE OPERATORS    In addition to satisfying the requirements for the issue of acertificate in compliance with the Radio Regulations, radiotelephoneoperators shall have knowledge and training, including practical training,in the following:        (a) the provision of radio services in emergencies, including:            (i) abandon ship;            (ii) fire aboard ship;            (iii) partial or full breakdown of the radio station;        (b) the operation of lifeboats, liferafts, buoyant apparatus andtheir equipment, with special reference to portable and fixed lifeboatradio apparatus and emergency position-indicating radio beacons;        (c) survival at sea;        (d) first aid;        (e) fire prevention and fire-fighting with particular reference tothe radio installation;        (f) preventive measures for the safety of ship and personnel inconnexion with hazards related to radio equipment, including electrical,radiation, chemical and mechanical hazards;        (g) the use of the IMCO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual(MERSAR) with particular reference to radiocommunications;        (h) ship position-reporting systems and procedures;        (i) the use of the International Code of Signals and the IMCOStandard Marine Navigational Vocabulary;        (j) radio medical systems and procedures.          CHAPTER V. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKERS           Regulation V/1 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Oil Tankers    1. Officers and ratings who are to have specific duties, andresponsibilities related to those duties, in connexion with cargo andcargo equipment on oil tankers and who have not served on board an oiltanker as part of the regular complement, before carrying out such dutiesshall have completed an appropriate shore-based fire-fighting course; and        (a) an appropriate period of supervised shipboard service in orderto acquire adequate knowledge of safe operational practices; or        (b) an approved oil tanker familiarization course which includesbasic safety and pollution prevention precautions and procedures, layoutsof different types of oil tankers, types of cargo, their hazards and theirhandling equipment, general operational sequence and oil tankerterminology.    2. Masters, chief engineer officers, chief mates, second engineerofficers and, if other than the foregoing, any person with the immediateresponsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling ofcargo, in addition to the provisions of paragraph 1, shall have:        (a) relevant experience appropriate to their duties on oiltankers; and        (b) completed a specialized training programme appropriate totheir duties, including oil tanker safety, fire safety measures andsystems, pollution prevention and control, operational practice andobligations under applicable laws and regulations.    3. Within two years after the entry into force of the Convention for aParty, a seafarer may be considered to have met the requirements ofparagraph 2(b) if he has served in a relevant capacity on board oiltankers for a period of not less than one year within the preceding fiveyears.          Regulation V/2 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Chemical Tankers    1. Officers and ratings who are to have specific duties, andresponsibilities related to those duties, in connexion with cargo andcargo equipment on chemical tankers and who have not served on board achemical tanker as part of the regular complement, before carrying outsuch duties shall have completed an appropriate shore-based fire-fightingcourse; and        (a) an appropriate period of supervised shipboard service in orderto acquire adequate knowledge of safe operational practices; or        (b) an approved chemical tanker familiarization course whichincludes basic safety and pollution prevention precautions and procedures,layouts of different types of chemical tankers, types of cargo, theirhazards and their handling equipment, general operational sequence andchemical tanker terminology.    2. Masters, chief engineer officers, chief mates, second engineerofficers and, if other than the foregoing, any person with the immediateresponsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling ofcargo, in addition to the provisions of paragraph 1, shall have:        (a) relevant experience appropriate to their duties on chemicaltankers; and        (b) completed a specialized training programme appropriate totheir duties including chemical tanker safety, fire safety measures andsystems, pollution prevention and control,  operational practice andobligations under applicable laws and regulations.    3. Within two years after the entry into force of the Convention for aParty, a seafarer may be considered to have met the requirements ofparagraph 2 (b) if he has served in a relevant capacity on board chemicaltankers for a period of not less than one year within the preceding fiveyears.          Regulation V/3 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Training andQualifications of Masters, Officers and Ratings of Liquefied Gas Tankers    1. Officers and ratings who are to have specific duties, andresponsibilities related to those duties, in connexion with cargo andcargo equipment on liquefied gas tankers and who have not served on boarda liquefied gas tanker as part of the regular complement, before carryingout such duties shall have completed an appropriate shore-basedfire-fighting course; and        (a) an appropriate period of supervised shipboard service in orderto acquire adequate knowledge of safe operational practices; or        (b) an approved liquefied gas tanker familiarization course whichincludes basic safety and pollution prevention precautions and procedures,layouts of difference types of liquefied gas tankers, types of cargo,their hazards and their handling equipment, general operational sequenceand liquefied gas tanker terminology.    2. Masters, chief engineer officers, chief mates, second engineerofficers and, if other than the foregoing, any person with the immediateresponsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling ofcargo, in addition to the provisions of paragraph 1, shall have:        (a) relevant experience appropriate to their duties on liquefiedgas tankers; and        (b) completed a specialized training programme appropriate totheir duties including liquefied gas tanker safety, fire safety measuresand systems, pollution prevention and control, operational practice andobligations under applicable laws and regulations.    3. Within two years after the entry into force of the Convention for aParty, a seafarer may be considered to have met the requirements ofparagraph 2(b) if he has served in a relevant capacity on board liquefiedgas tankers for a period of not less than one year within the precedingfive years.          CHAPTER VI. PROFICIENCY IN SURVIVAL CRAFT           Regulation VI/1 Mandatory Minimum Requirements for the Issue ofCertificates of Proficiency in Survival Craft    Every seafarer to be issued with a certificate of proficiency insurvival craft shall:        (a) be not less than 17 1/2 years of age;        (b) satisfy the Administration as to medical fitness;        (c) have approved sea-going service of not less than 12 months orhave attended an approved training course and have approved sea-goingservice of not less than nine months;        (d) satisfy the Administration by examination or by continuousassessment during an approved training course that he possesses knowledgeof the contents of the Appendix to this Regulation;        (e) demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administration byexamination or by continuous assessment during an approved training coursethat he possesses the ability to:            (i) don a life-jacket correctly; safely jump from a heightinto the water; board a survival craft from the water while wearing alife-jacket;            (ii) right an inverted liferaft while wearing a life-jacket;            (iii) interpret the markings on survival craft with respect tothe number of persons they are permitted to carry;            (iv) make the correct commands required for launching andboarding the survival craft, clearing the ship and handling anddisembarking from the survival craft;            (v) prepare and launch survival craft safely into the waterand clear the ship\'s side quickly;            (vi) deal with injured persons both during and afterabandonment;            (vii) row and steer, erect a mast, set the sails, manage aboat under sail and steer a boat by compass;            (viii) use signalling equipment, including pyrotechnics;            (ix) use portable radio equipment for survival craft.          APPENDIX TO REGULATION VI/I MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR THE IS-SUE OF CERTIFICATES OF PROFICIENCY IN SURVIVAL CRAFT    1. Types of emergency situations which may occur, such as collisions,fire, foundering.    2. Principles of survival including:    (a) value of training and drills;    (b) need to be ready for any emergency;    (c) actions to be taken when called to survival craft stations;    (d) actions to be taken when required to abandon ship;    (e) actions to be taken when in the water;    (f) actions to be taken when aboard a survival craft;    (g) main dangers to survivors.    3. Special duties assigned to each crew member as indicated in themuster list, including the differences between the signals calling allcrew to survival craft and to fire stations.    4. Types of life-saving appliances normally carried on board ships.    5. Construction and outfit of survival craft and individual items oftheir equipment.    6. Particular characteristics and facilities of survival craft.    7. Various types of devices used for launching survival craft.    8. Methods of launching survival craft into a rough sea.    9. Action to be taken after leaving the ship.    10. Handling survival craft in rough weather.    11. Use of painter, sea anchor and all other equipment.    12. Apportionment of food and water in survival craft.    13. Methods of helicopter rescue.    14. Use of the first aid kit and resuscitation techniques.    15. Radio devices carried in survival craft, including emergencyposition-indicating radio beacons.    16. Effects of hypothermia and its prevention; use of protectivecovers and protective garments.    17. Methods of starting and operating a survival craft engine and itsaccessories together with the use of fire extinguisher provided.    18. Use of emergency boats and motor lifeboats for marshallingliferafts and rescue of survivors and persons in the sea.    19. Beaching a survival craft.
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    发布于:2022-02-09 17:01:34
  • 船舶物权中华人民共和国海警法
    中华人民共和国海警法 中华人民共和国海警法全国人民代表大会常务委员会 中华人民共和国海警法 中华人民共和国主席令 第七十一号   《中华人民共和国海警法》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十五次会议于2021年1月22日通过,现予公布,自2021年2月1日起施行。 中华人民共和国主席 习近平 2021年1月22日 中华人民共和国海警法 (2021年1月22日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十五次会议通过)   目录   第一章 总则   第二章 机构和职责   第三章 海上安全保卫   第四章 海上行政执法   第五章 海上犯罪侦查   第六章 警械和武器使用   第七章 保障和协作   第八章 国际合作   第九章 监督   第十章 法律责任   第十一章 附则   第一章 总则   第一条 为了规范和保障海警机构履行职责,维护国家主权、安全和海洋权益,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,制定本法。   第二条 人民武装警察部队海警部队即海警机构,统一履行海上维权执法职责。   海警机构包括中国海警局及其海区分局和直属局、省级海警局、市级海警局、海警工作站。   第三条 海警机构在中华人民共和国管辖海域(以下简称我国管辖海域)及其上空开展海上维权执法活动,适用本法。   第四条 海上维权执法工作坚持中国共产党的领导,贯彻总体国家安全观,遵循依法管理、综合治理、规范高效、公正文明的原则。   第五条 海上维权执法工作的基本任务是开展海上安全保卫,维护海上治安秩序,打击海上走私、偷渡,在职责范围内对海洋资源开发利用、海洋生态环境保护、海洋渔业生产作业等活动进行监督检查,预防、制止和惩治海上违法犯罪活动。   第六条 海警机构及其工作人员依法执行职务受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得非法干涉、拒绝和阻碍。   第七条 海警机构工作人员应当遵守宪法和法律,崇尚荣誉,忠于职守,纪律严明,严格执法,清正廉洁。   第八条 国家建立陆海统筹、分工合作、科学高效的海上维权执法协作配合机制。国务院有关部门、沿海地方人民政府、军队有关部门和海警机构应当相互加强协作配合,做好海上维权执法工作。   第九条 对在海上维权执法活动中做出突出贡献的组织和个人,依照有关法律、法规的规定给予表彰和奖励。   第二章 机构和职责   第十条 国家在沿海地区按照行政区划和任务区域编设中国海警局海区分局和直属局、省级海警局、市级海警局和海警工作站,分别负责所管辖区域的有关海上维权执法工作。中国海警局按照国家有关规定领导所属海警机构开展海上维权执法工作。   第十一条 海警机构管辖区域应当根据海上维权执法工作的需要合理划定和调整,可以不受行政区划限制。   海警机构管辖区域的划定和调整应当及时向社会公布,并通报有关机关。   第十二条 海警机构依法履行下列职责:   (一)在我国管辖海域开展巡航、警戒,值守重点岛礁,管护海上界线,预防、制止、排除危害国家主权、安全和海洋权益的行为;   (二)对海上重要目标和重大活动实施安全保卫,采取必要措施保护重点岛礁以及专属经济区和大陆架的人工岛屿、设施和结构安全;   (三)实施海上治安管理,查处海上违反治安管理、入境出境管理的行为,防范和处置海上恐怖活动,维护海上治安秩序;   (四)对海上有走私嫌疑的运输工具或者货物、物品、人员进行检查,查处海上走私违法行为;   (五)在职责范围内对海域使用、海岛保护以及无居民海岛开发利用、海洋矿产资源勘查开发、海底电(光)缆和管道铺设与保护、海洋调查测量、海洋基础测绘、涉外海洋科学研究等活动进行监督检查,查处违法行为;   (六)在职责范围内对海洋工程建设项目、海洋倾倒废弃物对海洋污染损害、自然保护地海岸线向海一侧保护利用等活动进行监督检查,查处违法行为,按照规定权限参与海洋环境污染事故的应急处置和调查处理;   (七)对机动渔船底拖网禁渔区线外侧海域和特定渔业资源渔场渔业生产作业、海洋野生动物保护等活动进行监督检查,查处违法行为,依法组织或者参与调查处理海上渔业生产安全事故和渔业生产纠纷;   (八)预防、制止和侦查海上犯罪活动;   (九)按照国家有关职责分工,处置海上突发事件;   (十)依照法律、法规和我国缔结、参加的国际条约,在我国管辖海域以外的区域承担相关执法任务;   (十一)法律、法规规定的其他职责。   海警机构与公安、自然资源、生态环境、交通运输、渔业渔政、海关等主管部门的职责分工,按照国家有关规定执行。   第十三条 海警机构接到因海上自然灾害、事故灾难等紧急求助,应当及时通报有关主管部门,并积极开展应急救援和救助。   第十四条 中央国家机关按照国家有关规定对海上维权执法工作实行业务指导。   第十五条 中国海警局及其海区分局按照国家有关规定,协调指导沿海地方人民政府海上执法队伍开展海域使用、海岛保护开发、海洋生态环境保护、海洋渔业管理等相关执法工作。   根据海上维权执法工作需要,中国海警局及其海区分局可以统一协调组织沿海地方人民政府海上执法队伍的船舶、人员参与海上重大维权执法行动。   第三章 海上安全保卫   第十六条 为维护海上安全和秩序,海警机构有权依法对在我国管辖海域航行、停泊、作业的外国船舶进行识别查证,判明船舶的基本信息及其航行、作业的基本情况。对有违法嫌疑的外国船舶,海警机构有权采取跟踪监视等措施。   第十七条 对非法进入我国领海及其以内海域的外国船舶,海警机构有权责令其立即离开,或者采取扣留、强制驱离、强制拖离等措施。   第十八条 海警机构执行海上安全保卫任务,可以对在我国管辖海域航行、停泊、作业的船舶依法登临、检查。   海警机构登临、检查船舶,应当通过明确的指令要求被检查船舶停船接受检查。被检查船舶应当按照指令停船接受检查,并提供必要的便利;拒不配合检查的,海警机构可以强制检查;现场逃跑的,海警机构有权采取必要的措施进行拦截、紧追。   海警机构检查船舶,有权依法查验船舶和生产作业许可有关的证书、资料以及人员身份信息,检查船舶及其所载货物、物品,对有关违法事实进行调查取证。   对外国船舶登临、检查、拦截、紧追,遵守我国缔结、参加的国际条约的有关规定。   第十九条 海警机构因处置海上突发事件的紧急需要,可以采取下列措施:   (一)责令船舶停止航行、作业;   (二)责令船舶改变航线或者驶向指定地点;   (三)责令船舶上的人员下船,或者限制、禁止人员上船、下船;   (四)责令船舶卸载货物,或者限制、禁止船舶卸载货物;   (五)法律、法规规定的其他措施。   第二十条 未经我国主管机关批准,外国组织和个人在我国管辖海域和岛礁建造建筑物、构筑物,以及布设各类固定或者浮动装置的,海警机构有权责令其停止上述违法行为或者限期拆除;对拒不停止违法行为或者逾期不拆除的,海警机构有权予以制止或者强制拆除。   第二十一条 对外国军用船舶和用于非商业目的的外国政府船舶在我国管辖海域违反我国法律、法规的行为,海警机构有权采取必要的警戒和管制措施予以制止,责令其立即离开相关海域;对拒不离开并造成严重危害或者威胁的,海警机构有权采取强制驱离、强制拖离等措施。   第二十二条 国家主权、主权权利和管辖权在海上正在受到外国组织和个人的不法侵害或者面临不法侵害的紧迫危险时,海警机构有权依照本法和其他相关法律、法规,采取包括使用武器在内的一切必要措施制止侵害、排除危险。   第四章 海上行政执法   第二十三条 海警机构对违反海上治安、海关、海洋资源开发利用、海洋生态环境保护、海洋渔业管理等法律、法规、规章的组织和个人,依法实施包括限制人身自由在内的行政处罚、行政强制或者法律、法规规定的其他措施。   海警机构依照海洋资源开发利用、海洋生态环境保护、海洋渔业管理等法律、法规的规定,对海上生产作业现场进行监督检查。   海警机构因调查海上违法行为的需要,有权向有关组织和个人收集、调取证据。有关组织和个人应当如实提供证据。   海警机构为维护海上治安秩序,对有违法犯罪嫌疑的人员进行当场盘问、检查或者继续盘问的,依照《中华人民共和国人民警察法》的规定执行。   第二十四条 海警机构因开展行政执法需要登临、检查、拦截、紧追相关船舶的,依照本法第十八条规定执行。   第二十五条 有下列情形之一,省级海警局以上海警机构可以在我国管辖海域划定海上临时警戒区,限制或者禁止船舶、人员通行、停留:   (一)执行海上安全保卫任务需要的;   (二)打击海上违法犯罪活动需要的;   (三)处置海上突发事件需要的;   (四)保护海洋资源和生态环境需要的;   (五)其他需要划定海上临时警戒区的情形。   划定海上临时警戒区,应当明确海上临时警戒区的区域范围、警戒期限、管理措施等事项并予以公告。其中,可能影响海上交通安全的,应当在划定前征求海事管理机构的意见,并按照相关规定向海事管理机构申请发布航行通告、航行警告;涉及军事用海或者可能影响海上军事设施安全和使用的,应当依法征得军队有关部门的同意。   对于不需要继续限制或者禁止船舶、人员通行、停留的,海警机构应当及时解除警戒,并予公告。   第二十六条 对涉嫌违法正在接受调查处理的船舶,海警机构可以责令其暂停航行、作业,在指定地点停泊或者禁止其离港。必要时,海警机构可以将嫌疑船舶押解至指定地点接受调查处理。   第二十七条 国际组织、外国组织和个人的船舶经我国主管机关批准在我国管辖海域从事渔业生产作业以及其他自然资源勘查开发、海洋科学研究、海底电(光)缆和管道铺设等活动的,海警机构应当依法进行监管,可以派出执法人员随船监管。   第二十八条 为预防、制止和惩治在我国陆地领土、内水或者领海内违反有关安全、海关、财政、卫生或者入境出境管理法律、法规的行为,海警机构有权在毗连区行使管制权,依法实施行政强制措施或者法律、法规规定的其他措施。   第二十九条 违法事实确凿,并有下列情形之一,海警机构执法人员可以当场作出处罚决定:   (一)对个人处五百元以下罚款或者警告、对单位处五千元以下罚款或者警告的;   (二)罚款处罚决定不在海上当场作出,事后难以处罚的。   当场作出的处罚决定,应当及时报所属海警机构备案。   第三十条 对不适用当场处罚,但事实清楚,当事人自愿认错认罚,且对违法事实和法律适用没有异议的海上行政案件,海警机构征得当事人书面同意后,可以通过简化取证方式和审核审批等措施快速办理。   对符合快速办理条件的海上行政案件,当事人在自行书写材料或者询问笔录中承认违法事实、认错认罚,并有视听资料、电子数据、检查笔录等关键证据能够相互印证的,海警机构可以不再开展其他调查取证工作。   使用执法记录仪等设备对询问过程录音录像的,可以替代书面询问笔录。必要时,对视听资料的关键内容和相应时间段等作文字说明。   对快速办理的海上行政案件,海警机构应当在当事人到案后四十八小时内作出处理决定。   第三十一条 海上行政案件有下列情形之一,不适用快速办理:   (一)依法应当适用听证程序的;   (二)可能作出十日以上行政拘留处罚的;   (三)有重大社会影响的;   (四)可能涉嫌犯罪的;   (五)其他不宜快速办理的。   第三十二条 海警机构实施行政强制措施前,执法人员应当向本单位负责人报告并经批准。情况紧急,需要在海上当场实施行政强制措施的,应当在二十四小时内向本单位负责人报告,抵岸后及时补办批准手续;因不可抗力无法在二十四小时内向本单位负责人报告的,应当在不可抗力影响消除后二十四小时内向本单位负责人报告。海警机构负责人认为不应当采取行政强制措施的,应当立即解除。   第三十三条 当事人逾期不履行处罚决定的,作出处罚决定的海警机构可以依法采取下列措施:   (一)到期不缴纳罚款的,每日按罚款数额的百分之三加处罚款;   (二)将查封、扣押的财物依法拍卖、变卖或者将冻结的存款、汇款划拨抵缴罚款;   (三)根据法律规定,采取其他行政强制执行方式。   本法和其他法律没有规定海警机构可以实施行政强制执行的事项,海警机构应当申请人民法院强制执行。   第三十四条 各级海警机构对海上行政案件的管辖分工,由中国海警局规定。   海警机构与其他机关对海上行政案件管辖有争议的,由海警机构与其他机关按照有利于案件调查处理的原则进行协商。   第三十五条 海警机构办理海上行政案件时,有证据证明当事人在海上实施将物品倒入海中等故意毁灭证据的行为,给海警机构举证造成困难的,可以结合其他证据,推定有关违法事实成立,但是当事人有证据足以推翻的除外。   第三十六条 海警机构开展巡航、警戒、拦截、紧追等海上执法工作,使用标示有专用标志的执法船舶、航空器的,即为表明身份。   海警机构在进行行政执法调查或者检查时,执法人员不得少于两人,并应当主动出示执法证件表明身份。当事人或者其他有关人员有权要求执法人员出示执法证件。   第三十七条 海警机构开展海上行政执法的程序,本法未作规定的,适用《中华人民共和国行政处罚法》、《中华人民共和国行政强制法》、《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》等有关法律的规定。   第五章 海上犯罪侦查   第三十八条 海警机构办理海上发生的刑事案件,依照《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》和本法的有关规定行使侦查权,采取侦查措施和刑事强制措施。   第三十九条 海警机构在立案后,对于危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、黑社会性质的组织犯罪、重大毒品犯罪或者其他严重危害社会的犯罪案件,依照《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》和有关规定,经过严格的批准手续,可以采取技术侦查措施,按照规定交由有关机关执行。   追捕被通缉或者批准、决定逮捕的在逃的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,经过批准,可以采取追捕所必需的技术侦查措施。   第四十条 应当逮捕的犯罪嫌疑人在逃,海警机构可以按照规定发布通缉令,采取有效措施,追捕归案。   海警机构对犯罪嫌疑人发布通缉令的,可以商请公安机关协助追捕。   第四十一条 海警机构因办理海上刑事案件需要登临、检查、拦截、紧追相关船舶的,依照本法第十八条规定执行。   第四十二条 海警机构、人民检察院、人民法院依法对海上刑事案件的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人决定取保候审的,由被取保候审人居住地的海警机构执行。被取保候审人居住地未设海警机构的,当地公安机关应当协助执行。   第四十三条 海警机构、人民检察院、人民法院依法对海上刑事案件的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人决定监视居住的,由海警机构在被监视居住人住处执行;被监视居住人在负责办案的海警机构所在的市、县没有固定住处的,可以在指定的居所执行。对于涉嫌危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪,在住处执行可能有碍侦查的,经上一级海警机构批准,也可以在指定的居所执行。但是,不得在羁押场所、专门的办案场所执行。   第四十四条 海警工作站负责侦查发生在本管辖区域内的海上刑事案件。   市级海警局以上海警机构负责侦查管辖区域内的重大的危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、涉外犯罪、经济犯罪、集团犯罪案件以及其他重大犯罪案件。   上级海警机构认为有必要的,可以侦查下级海警机构管辖范围内的海上刑事案件;下级海警机构认为案情重大需要上级海警机构侦查的海上刑事案件,可以报请上级海警机构管辖。   第四十五条 海警机构办理海上刑事案件,需要提请批准逮捕或者移送起诉的,应当向所在地相应人民检察院提请或者移送。   第六章 警械和武器使用   第四十六条 有下列情形之一,海警机构工作人员可以使用警械或者现场的其他装备、工具:   (一)依法登临、检查、拦截、紧追船舶时,需要迫使船舶停止航行的;   (二)依法强制驱离、强制拖离船舶的;   (三)依法执行职务过程中遭遇阻碍、妨害的;   (四)需要现场制止违法犯罪行为的其他情形。   第四十七条 有下列情形之一,经警告无效的,海警机构工作人员可以使用手持武器:   (一)有证据表明船舶载有犯罪嫌疑人或者非法载运武器、弹药、国家秘密资料、毒品等物品,拒不服从停船指令的;   (二)外国船舶进入我国管辖海域非法从事生产作业活动,拒不服从停船指令或者以其他方式拒绝接受登临、检查,使用其他措施不足以制止违法行为的。   第四十八条 有下列情形之一,海警机构工作人员除可以使用手持武器外,还可以使用舰载或者机载武器:   (一)执行海上反恐怖任务的;   (二)处置海上严重暴力事件的;   (三)执法船舶、航空器受到武器或者其他危险方式攻击的。   第四十九条 海警机构工作人员依法使用武器,来不及警告或者警告后可能导致更为严重危害后果的,可以直接使用武器。   第五十条 海警机构工作人员应当根据违法犯罪行为和违法犯罪行为人的危险性质、程度和紧迫性,合理判断使用武器的必要限度,尽量避免或者减少不必要的人员伤亡、财产损失。   第五十一条 海警机构工作人员使用警械和武器,本法未作规定的,依照人民警察使用警械和武器的规定以及其他有关法律、法规的规定执行。   第七章 保障和协作   第五十二条 国家建立与海警机构担负海上维权执法任务和建设发展相适应的经费保障机制。所需经费按照国家有关规定列入预算。   第五十三条 国务院有关部门、沿海县级以上地方人民政府及其有关部门在编制国土空间规划和相关专项规划时,应当统筹海上维权执法工作需求,按照国家有关规定对海警机构执法办案、执勤训练、生活等场地和设施建设等予以保障。   第五十四条 海警机构因海上维权执法紧急需要,可以依照法律、法规、规章的规定优先使用或者征用组织和个人的交通工具、通信工具、场地,用后应当及时归还,并支付适当费用;造成损失的,按照国家有关规定给予补偿。   第五十五条 海警机构应当优化力量体系,建强人才队伍,加强教育培训,保障海警机构工作人员具备履行法定职责的知识、技能和素质,提高海上维权执法专业能力。   海上维权执法实行持证上岗和资格管理制度。   第五十六条 国家加强海上维权执法装备体系建设,保障海警机构配备与其履行职责相适应的船舶、航空器、武器以及其他装备。   第五十七条 海警机构应当加强信息化建设,运用现代信息技术,促进执法公开,强化便民服务,提高海上维权执法工作效率。   海警机构应当开通海上报警服务平台,及时受理人民群众报警、紧急求助。   第五十八条 海警机构分别与相应的外交(外事)、公安、自然资源、生态环境、交通运输、渔业渔政、应急管理、海关等主管部门,以及人民法院、人民检察院和军队有关部门建立信息共享和工作协作配合机制。   有关主管部门应当及时向海警机构提供与开展海上维权执法工作相关的基础数据、行政许可、行政管理政策等信息服务和技术支持。   海警机构应当将海上监督检查、查处违法犯罪等工作数据、信息,及时反馈有关主管部门,配合有关主管部门做好海上行政管理工作。海警机构依法实施行政处罚,认为需要吊销许可证件的,应当将相关材料移送发证机关处理。   第五十九条 海警机构因开展海上维权执法工作需要,可以向有关主管部门提出协助请求。协助请求属于有关主管部门职责范围内的,有关主管部门应当配合。   第六十条 海警机构对依法决定行政拘留的违法行为人和拘留审查的外国人,以及决定刑事拘留、执行逮捕的犯罪嫌疑人,分别送海警机构所在地拘留所或者看守所执行。   第六十一条 海警机构对依法扣押、扣留的涉案财物,应当妥善保管,不得损毁或者擅自处理。但是,对下列货物、物品,经市级海警局以上海警机构负责人批准,可以先行依法拍卖或者变卖并通知所有人,所有人不明确的,通知其他当事人:   (一)成品油等危险品;   (二)鲜活、易腐、易失效等不宜长期保存的;   (三)长期不使用容易导致机械性能下降、价值贬损的车辆、船舶等;   (四)体量巨大难以保管的;   (五)所有人申请先行拍卖或者变卖的。   拍卖或者变卖所得款项由海警机构暂行保存,待结案后按照国家有关规定处理。   第六十二条 海警机构对应当退还所有人或者其他当事人的涉案财物,通知所有人或者其他当事人在六个月内领取;所有人不明确的,应当采取公告方式告知所有人认领。在通知所有人、其他当事人或者公告后六个月内无人认领的,按无主财物处理,依法拍卖或者变卖后将所得款项上缴国库。遇有特殊情况的,可以延期处理,延长期限最长不超过三个月。   第八章 国际合作   第六十三条 中国海警局根据中华人民共和国缔结、参加的国际条约或者按照对等、互利的原则,开展海上执法国际合作;在规定权限内组织或者参与有关海上执法国际条约实施工作,商签海上执法合作性文件。   第六十四条 海警机构开展海上执法国际合作的主要任务是参与处置涉外海上突发事件,协调解决海上执法争端,管控海上危机,与外国海上执法机构和有关国际组织合作打击海上违法犯罪活动,保护海洋资源环境,共同维护国际和地区海洋公共安全和秩序。   第六十五条 海警机构可以与外国海上执法机构和有关国际组织开展下列海上执法国际合作:   (一)建立双边、多边海上执法合作机制,参加海上执法合作机制的活动;   (二)交流和共享海上执法情报信息;   (三)海上联合巡逻、检查、演练、训练;   (四)教育培训交流;   (五)互派海上执法国际合作联络人员;   (六)其他海上执法国际合作活动。   第九章 监督   第六十六条 海警机构及其工作人员应当依照法律、法规规定的条件、权限和程序履行职责、行使职权,不得滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊,不得侵犯组织和个人的合法权益。   第六十七条 海警机构应当尊重和依法保障公民、法人和其他组织对海警机构执法工作的知情权、参与权和监督权,增强执法工作透明度和公信力。   海警机构应当依法公开海上执法工作信息。   第六十八条 海警机构询问、讯问、继续盘问、辨认违法犯罪嫌疑人以及对违法犯罪嫌疑人进行安全检查、信息采集等执法活动,应当在办案场所进行。紧急情况下必须在现场进行询问、讯问或者有其他不宜在办案场所进行询问、讯问的情形除外。   海警机构应当按照国家有关规定以文字、音像等形式,对海上维权执法活动进行全过程记录,归档保存。   第六十九条 海警机构及其工作人员开展海上维权执法工作,依法接受检察机关、军队监察机关的监督。   第七十条 人民政府及其有关部门、公民、法人和其他组织对海警机构及其工作人员的违法违纪行为,有权向检察机关、军队监察机关通报、检举、控告。对海警机构及其工作人员正在发生的违法违纪或者失职行为,可以通过海上报警服务平台进行投诉、举报。   对依法检举、控告或者投诉、举报的公民、法人和其他组织,任何机关和个人不得压制和打击报复。   第七十一条 上级海警机构应当对下级海警机构的海上维权执法工作进行监督,发现其作出的处理措施或者决定有错误的,有权撤销、变更或者责令下级海警机构撤销、变更;发现其不履行法定职责的,有权责令其依法履行。   第七十二条 中国海警局应当建立健全海上维权执法工作监督机制和执法过错责任追究制度。   第十章 法律责任   第七十三条 有下列阻碍海警机构及其工作人员依法执行职务的行为之一,由公安机关或者海警机构依照《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》关于阻碍人民警察依法执行职务的规定予以处罚:   (一)侮辱、威胁、围堵、拦截、袭击海警机构工作人员的;   (二)阻碍调查取证的;   (三)强行冲闯海上临时警戒区的;   (四)阻碍执行追捕、检查、搜查、救险、警卫等任务的;   (五)阻碍执法船舶、航空器、车辆和人员通行的;   (六)采取危险驾驶、设置障碍等方法驾驶船舶逃窜,危及执法船舶、人员安全的;   (七)其他严重阻碍海警机构及其工作人员执行职务的行为。   第七十四条 海警机构工作人员在执行职务中,有下列行为之一,按照中央军事委员会的有关规定给予处分:   (一)泄露国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的;   (二)弄虚作假,隐瞒案情,包庇、纵容违法犯罪活动的;   (三)刑讯逼供或者体罚、虐待违法犯罪嫌疑人的;   (四)违反规定使用警械、武器的;   (五)非法剥夺、限制人身自由,非法检查或者搜查人身、货物、物品、交通工具、住所或者场所的;   (六)敲诈勒索,索取、收受贿赂或者接受当事人及其代理人请客送礼的;   (七)违法实施行政处罚、行政强制,采取刑事强制措施或者收取费用的;   (八)玩忽职守,不履行法定义务的;   (九)其他违法违纪行为。   第七十五条 违反本法规定,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。   第七十六条 组织和个人对海警机构作出的行政行为不服的,有权依照《中华人民共和国行政复议法》的规定向上一级海警机构申请行政复议;或者依照《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》的规定向有管辖权的人民法院提起行政诉讼。   第七十七条 海警机构及其工作人员违法行使职权,侵犯组织和个人合法权益造成损害的,应当依照《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》和其他有关法律、法规的规定给予赔偿。   第十一章 附则   第七十八条 本法下列用语的含义是:   (一)省级海警局,是指直接由中国海警局领导,在沿海省、自治区、直辖市设立的海警局;市级海警局,是指由省级海警局领导,在沿海省、自治区下辖市和直辖市下辖区设立的海警局;海警工作站,通常是指由市级海警局领导,在沿海县级行政区域设立的基层海警机构。   (二)船舶,是指各类排水或者非排水的船、艇、筏、水上飞行器、潜水器等移动式装置,不包括海上石油、天然气等作业平台。   第七十九条 外国在海上执法方面对我国公民、法人和其他组织采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他特别措施的,海警机构可以按照国家有关规定采取相应的对等措施。   第八十条 本法规定的对船舶的维权执法措施适用于海上各种固定或者浮动建筑、装置,固定或者移动式平台。   第八十一条 海警机构依照法律、法规和我国缔结、参加的国际条约,在我国管辖海域以外的区域执行执法任务时,相关程序可以参照本法有关规定执行。   第八十二条 中国海警局根据法律、行政法规和国务院、中央军事委员会的决定,就海上维权执法事项制定规章,并按照规定备案。   第八十三条 海警机构依照《中华人民共和国国防法》、《中华人民共和国人民武装警察法》等有关法律、军事法规和中央军事委员会的命令,执行防卫作战等任务。   第八十四条 本法自2021年2月1日起施行。
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    发布于:2022-02-09 16:12:00
  • 船舶物权中华人民共和国海上交通安全法
    中华人民共和国海上交通安全法 中华人民共和国主席令 第七十九号 《中华人民共和国海上交通安全法》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议于2021年4月29日修订通过,现予公布,自2021年9月1日起施行。 中华人民共和国主席 习近平 2021年4月29日 中华人民共和国海上交通安全法 (1983年9月2日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二次会议通过 根据2016年11月7日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国对外贸易法〉等十二部法律的决定》修正 2021年4月29日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议修订) 目  录 第一章 总  则 第二章 船舶、海上设施和船员 第三章 海上交通条件和航行保障 第四章 航行、停泊、作业 第五章 海上客货运输安全 第六章 海上搜寻救助 第七章 海上交通事故调查处理 第八章 监督管理 第九章 法律责任 第十章 附  则 第一章 总  则 第一条 为了加强海上交通管理,维护海上交通秩序,保障生命财产安全,维护国家权益,制定本法。 第二条 在中华人民共和国管辖海域内从事航行、停泊、作业以及其他与海上交通安全相关的活动,适用本法。 第三条 国家依法保障交通用海。 海上交通安全工作坚持安全第一、预防为主、便利通行、依法管理的原则,保障海上交通安全、有序、畅通。 第四条 国务院交通运输主管部门主管全国海上交通安全工作。 国家海事管理机构统一负责海上交通安全监督管理工作,其他各级海事管理机构按照职责具体负责辖区内的海上交通安全监督管理工作。 第五条 各级人民政府及有关部门应当支持海上交通安全工作,加强海上交通安全的宣传教育,提高全社会的海上交通安全意识。 第六条 国家依法保障船员的劳动安全和职业健康,维护船员的合法权益。 第七条 从事船舶、海上设施航行、停泊、作业以及其他与海上交通相关活动的单位、个人,应当遵守有关海上交通安全的法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范;依法享有获得航海保障和海上救助的权利,承担维护海上交通安全和保护海洋生态环境的义务。 第八条 国家鼓励和支持先进科学技术在海上交通安全工作中的应用,促进海上交通安全现代化建设,提高海上交通安全科学技术水平。 第二章 船舶、海上设施和船员 第九条 中国籍船舶、在中华人民共和国管辖海域设置的海上设施、船运集装箱,以及国家海事管理机构确定的关系海上交通安全的重要船用设备、部件和材料,应当符合有关法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范的要求,经船舶检验机构检验合格,取得相应证书、文书。证书、文书的清单由国家海事管理机构制定并公布。 设立船舶检验机构应当经国家海事管理机构许可。船舶检验机构设立条件、程序及其管理等依照有关船舶检验的法律、行政法规的规定执行。 持有相关证书、文书的单位应当按照规定的用途使用船舶、海上设施、船运集装箱以及重要船用设备、部件和材料,并应当依法定期进行安全技术检验。 第十条 船舶依照有关船舶登记的法律、行政法规的规定向海事管理机构申请船舶国籍登记、取得国籍证书后,方可悬挂中华人民共和国国旗航行、停泊、作业。 中国籍船舶灭失或者报废的,船舶所有人应当在国务院交通运输主管部门规定的期限内申请办理注销国籍登记;船舶所有人逾期不申请注销国籍登记的,海事管理机构可以发布关于拟强制注销船舶国籍登记的公告。船舶所有人自公告发布之日起六十日内未提出异议的,海事管理机构可以注销该船舶的国籍登记。 第十一条 中国籍船舶所有人、经营人或者管理人应当建立并运行安全营运和防治船舶污染管理体系。 海事管理机构经对前款规定的管理体系审核合格的,发给符合证明和相应的船舶安全管理证书。 第十二条 中国籍国际航行船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人应当依照国务院交通运输主管部门的规定建立船舶保安制度,制定船舶保安计划,并按照船舶保安计划配备船舶保安设备,定期开展演练。 第十三条 中国籍船员和海上设施上的工作人员应当接受海上交通安全以及相应岗位的专业教育、培训。 中国籍船员应当依照有关船员管理的法律、行政法规的规定向海事管理机构申请取得船员适任证书,并取得健康证明。 外国籍船员在中国籍船舶上工作的,按照有关船员管理的法律、行政法规的规定执行。 船员在船舶上工作,应当符合船员适任证书载明的船舶、航区、职务的范围。 第十四条 中国籍船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人应当为其国际航行船舶向海事管理机构申请取得海事劳工证书。船舶取得海事劳工证书应当符合下列条件: (一)所有人、经营人或者管理人依法招用船员,与其签订劳动合同或者就业协议,并为船舶配备符合要求的船员; (二)所有人、经营人或者管理人已保障船员在船舶上的工作环境、职业健康保障和安全防护、工作和休息时间、工资报酬、生活条件、医疗条件、社会保险等符合国家有关规定; (三)所有人、经营人或者管理人已建立符合要求的船员投诉和处理机制; (四)所有人、经营人或者管理人已就船员遣返费用以及在船就业期间发生伤害、疾病或者死亡依法应当支付的费用提供相应的财务担保或者投保相应的保险。 海事管理机构商人力资源社会保障行政部门,按照各自职责对申请人及其船舶是否符合前款规定条件进行审核。经审核符合规定条件的,海事管理机构应当自受理申请之日起十个工作日内颁发海事劳工证书;不符合规定条件的,海事管理机构应当告知申请人并说明理由。 海事劳工证书颁发及监督检查的具体办法由国务院交通运输主管部门会同国务院人力资源社会保障行政部门制定并公布。 第十五条 海事管理机构依照有关船员管理的法律、行政法规的规定,对单位从事海船船员培训业务进行管理。 第十六条 国务院交通运输主管部门和其他有关部门、有关县级以上地方人民政府应当建立健全船员境外突发事件预警和应急处置机制,制定船员境外突发事件应急预案。 船员境外突发事件应急处置由船员派出单位所在地的省、自治区、直辖市人民政府负责,船员户籍所在地的省、自治区、直辖市人民政府予以配合。 中华人民共和国驻外国使馆、领馆和相关海事管理机构应当协助处置船员境外突发事件。 第十七条 本章第九条至第十二条、第十四条规定适用的船舶范围由有关法律、行政法规具体规定,或者由国务院交通运输主管部门拟定并报国务院批准后公布。 第三章 海上交通条件和航行保障 第十八条 国务院交通运输主管部门统筹规划和管理海上交通资源,促进海上交通资源的合理开发和有效利用。 海上交通资源规划应当符合国土空间规划。 第十九条 海事管理机构根据海域的自然状况、海上交通状况以及海上交通安全管理的需要,划定、调整并及时公布船舶定线区、船舶报告区、交通管制区、禁航区、安全作业区和港外锚地等海上交通功能区域。 海事管理机构划定或者调整船舶定线区、港外锚地以及对其他海洋功能区域或者用海活动造成影响的安全作业区,应当征求渔业渔政、生态环境、自然资源等有关部门的意见。为了军事需要划定、调整禁航区的,由负责划定、调整禁航区的军事机关作出决定,海事管理机构予以公布。 第二十条 建设海洋工程、海岸工程影响海上交通安全的,应当根据情况配备防止船舶碰撞的设施、设备并设置专用航标。 第二十一条 国家建立完善船舶定位、导航、授时、通信和远程监测等海上交通支持服务系统,为船舶、海上设施提供信息服务。 第二十二条 任何单位、个人不得损坏海上交通支持服务系统或者妨碍其工作效能。建设建筑物、构筑物,使用设施设备可能影响海上交通支持服务系统正常使用的,建设单位、所有人或者使用人应当与相关海上交通支持服务系统的管理单位协商,作出妥善安排。 第二十三条 国务院交通运输主管部门应当采取必要的措施,保障海上交通安全无线电通信设施的合理布局和有效覆盖,规划本系统(行业)海上无线电台(站)的建设布局和台址,核发船舶制式无线电台执照及电台识别码。 国务院交通运输主管部门组织本系统(行业)的海上无线电监测系统建设并对其无线电信号实施监测,会同国家无线电管理机构维护海上无线电波秩序。 第二十四条 船舶在中华人民共和国管辖海域内通信需要使用岸基无线电台(站)转接的,应当通过依法设置的境内海岸无线电台(站)或者卫星关口站进行转接。 承担无线电通信任务的船员和岸基无线电台(站)的工作人员应当遵守海上无线电通信规则,保持海上交通安全通信频道的值守和畅通,不得使用海上交通安全通信频率交流与海上交通安全无关的内容。 任何单位、个人不得违反国家有关规定使用无线电台识别码,影响海上搜救的身份识别。 第二十五条 天文、气象、海洋等有关单位应当及时预报、播发和提供航海天文、世界时、海洋气象、海浪、海流、潮汐、冰情等信息。 第二十六条 国务院交通运输主管部门统一布局、建设和管理公用航标。海洋工程、海岸工程的建设单位、所有人或者经营人需要设置、撤除专用航标,移动专用航标位置或者改变航标灯光、功率等的,应当报经海事管理机构同意。需要设置临时航标的,应当符合海事管理机构确定的航标设置点。 自然资源主管部门依法保障航标设施和装置的用地、用海、用岛,并依法为其办理有关手续。 航标的建设、维护、保养应当符合有关强制性标准和技术规范的要求。航标维护单位和专用航标的所有人应当对航标进行巡查和维护保养,保证航标处于良好适用状态。航标发生位移、损坏、灭失的,航标维护单位或者专用航标的所有人应当及时予以恢复。 第二十七条 任何单位、个人发现下列情形之一的,应当立即向海事管理机构报告;涉及航道管理机构职责或者专用航标的,海事管理机构应当及时通报航道管理机构或者专用航标的所有人: (一)助航标志或者导航设施位移、损坏、灭失; (二)有妨碍海上交通安全的沉没物、漂浮物、搁浅物或者其他碍航物; (三)其他妨碍海上交通安全的异常情况。 第二十八条 海事管理机构应当依据海上交通安全管理的需要,就具有紧迫性、危险性的情况发布航行警告,就其他影响海上交通安全的情况发布航行通告。 海事管理机构应当将航行警告、航行通告,以及船舶定线区的划定、调整情况通报海军航海保证部门,并及时提供有关资料。 第二十九条 海事管理机构应当及时向船舶、海上设施播发海上交通安全信息。 船舶、海上设施在定线区、交通管制区或者通航船舶密集的区域航行、停泊、作业时,海事管理机构应当根据其请求提供相应的安全信息服务。 第三十条 下列船舶在国务院交通运输主管部门划定的引航区内航行、停泊或者移泊的,应当向引航机构申请引航: (一)外国籍船舶,但国务院交通运输主管部门经报国务院批准后规定可以免除的除外; (二)核动力船舶、载运放射性物质的船舶、超大型油轮; (三)可能危及港口安全的散装液化气船、散装危险化学品船; (四)长、宽、高接近相应航道通航条件限值的船舶。 前款第三项、第四项船舶的具体标准,由有关海事管理机构根据港口实际情况制定并公布。 船舶自愿申请引航的,引航机构应当提供引航服务。 第三十一条 引航机构应当及时派遣具有相应能力、经验的引航员为船舶提供引航服务。 引航员应当根据引航机构的指派,在规定的水域登离被引领船舶,安全谨慎地执行船舶引航任务。被引领船舶应当配备符合规定的登离装置,并保障引航员在登离船舶及在船上引航期间的安全。 引航员引领船舶时,不解除船长指挥和管理船舶的责任。 第三十二条 国务院交通运输主管部门根据船舶、海上设施和港口面临的保安威胁情形,确定并及时发布保安等级。船舶、海上设施和港口应当根据保安等级采取相应的保安措施。 第四章 航行、停泊、作业 第三十三条 船舶航行、停泊、作业,应当持有有效的船舶国籍证书及其他法定证书、文书,配备依照有关规定出版的航海图书资料,悬挂相关国家、地区或者组织的旗帜,标明船名、船舶识别号、船籍港、载重线标志。 船舶应当满足最低安全配员要求,配备持有合格有效证书的船员。 海上设施停泊、作业,应当持有法定证书、文书,并按规定配备掌握避碰、信号、通信、消防、救生等专业技能的人员。 第三十四条 船长应当在船舶开航前检查并在开航时确认船员适任、船舶适航、货物适载,并了解气象和海况信息以及海事管理机构发布的航行通告、航行警告及其他警示信息,落实相应的应急措施,不得冒险开航。 船舶所有人、经营人或者管理人不得指使、强令船员违章冒险操作、作业。 第三十五条 船舶应当在其船舶检验证书载明的航区内航行、停泊、作业。 船舶航行、停泊、作业时,应当遵守相关航行规则,按照有关规定显示信号、悬挂标志,保持足够的富余水深。 第三十六条 船舶在航行中应当按照有关规定开启船舶的自动识别、航行数据记录、远程识别和跟踪、通信等与航行安全、保安、防治污染相关的装置,并持续进行显示和记录。 任何单位、个人不得拆封、拆解、初始化、再设置航行数据记录装置或者读取其记录的信息,但法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。 第三十七条 船舶应当配备航海日志、轮机日志、无线电记录簿等航行记录,按照有关规定全面、真实、及时记录涉及海上交通安全的船舶操作以及船舶航行、停泊、作业中的重要事件,并妥善保管相关记录簿。 第三十八条 船长负责管理和指挥船舶。在保障海上生命安全、船舶保安和防治船舶污染方面,船长有权独立作出决定。 船长应当采取必要的措施,保护船舶、在船人员、船舶航行文件、货物以及其他财产的安全。船长在其职权范围内发布的命令,船员、乘客及其他在船人员应当执行。 第三十九条 为了保障船舶和在船人员的安全,船长有权在职责范围内对涉嫌在船上进行违法犯罪活动的人员采取禁闭或者其他必要的限制措施,并防止其隐匿、毁灭、伪造证据。 船长采取前款措施,应当制作案情报告书,由其和两名以上在船人员签字。中国籍船舶抵达我国港口后,应当及时将相关人员移送有关主管部门。 第四十条 发现在船人员患有或者疑似患有严重威胁他人健康的传染病的,船长应当立即启动相应的应急预案,在职责范围内对相关人员采取必要的隔离措施,并及时报告有关主管部门。 第四十一条 船长在航行中死亡或者因故不能履行职责的,应当由驾驶员中职务最高的人代理船长职务;船舶在下一个港口开航前,其所有人、经营人或者管理人应当指派新船长接任。 第四十二条 船员应当按照有关航行、值班的规章制度和操作规程以及船长的指令操纵、管理船舶,保持安全值班,不得擅离职守。船员履行在船值班职责前和值班期间,不得摄入可能影响安全值班的食品、药品或者其他物品。 第四十三条 船舶进出港口、锚地或者通过桥区水域、海峡、狭水道、重要渔业水域、通航船舶密集的区域、船舶定线区、交通管制区,应当加强瞭望、保持安全航速,并遵守前述区域的特殊航行规则。 前款所称重要渔业水域由国务院渔业渔政主管部门征求国务院交通运输主管部门意见后划定并公布。 船舶穿越航道不得妨碍航道内船舶的正常航行,不得抢越他船船艏。超过桥梁通航尺度的船舶禁止进入桥区水域。 第四十四条 船舶不得违反规定进入或者穿越禁航区。 船舶进出船舶报告区,应当向海事管理机构报告船位和动态信息。 在安全作业区、港外锚地范围内,禁止从事养殖、种植、捕捞以及其他影响海上交通安全的作业或者活动。 第四十五条 船舶载运或者拖带超长、超高、超宽、半潜的船舶、海上设施或者其他物体航行,应当采取拖拽部位加强、护航等特殊的安全保障措施,在开航前向海事管理机构报告航行计划,并按有关规定显示信号、悬挂标志;拖带移动式平台、浮船坞等大型海上设施的,还应当依法交验船舶检验机构出具的拖航检验证书。 第四十六条 国际航行船舶进出口岸,应当依法向海事管理机构申请许可并接受海事管理机构及其他口岸查验机构的监督检查。海事管理机构应当自受理申请之日起五个工作日内作出许可或者不予许可的决定。 外国籍船舶临时进入非对外开放水域,应当依照国务院关于船舶进出口岸的规定取得许可。 国内航行船舶进出港口、港外装卸站,应当向海事管理机构报告船舶的航次计划、适航状态、船员配备和客货载运等情况。 第四十七条 船舶应当在符合安全条件的码头、泊位、装卸站、锚地、安全作业区停泊。船舶停泊不得危及其他船舶、海上设施的安全。 船舶进出港口、港外装卸站,应当符合靠泊条件和关于潮汐、气象、海况等航行条件的要求。 超长、超高、超宽的船舶或者操纵能力受到限制的船舶进出港口、港外装卸站可能影响海上交通安全的,海事管理机构应当对船舶进出港安全条件进行核查,并可以要求船舶采取加配拖轮、乘潮进港等相应的安全措施。 第四十八条 在中华人民共和国管辖海域内进行施工作业,应当经海事管理机构许可,并核定相应安全作业区。取得海上施工作业许可,应当符合下列条件: (一)施工作业的单位、人员、船舶、设施符合安全航行、停泊、作业的要求; (二)有施工作业方案; (三)有符合海上交通安全和防治船舶污染海洋环境要求的保障措施、应急预案和责任制度。 从事施工作业的船舶应当在核定的安全作业区内作业,并落实海上交通安全管理措施。其他无关船舶、海上设施不得进入安全作业区。 在港口水域内进行采掘、爆破等可能危及港口安全的作业,适用港口管理的法律规定。 第四十九条 从事体育、娱乐、演练、试航、科学观测等水上水下活动,应当遵守海上交通安全管理规定;可能影响海上交通安全的,应当提前十个工作日将活动涉及的海域范围报告海事管理机构。 第五十条 海上施工作业或者水上水下活动结束后,有关单位、个人应当及时消除可能妨碍海上交通安全的隐患。 第五十一条 碍航物的所有人、经营人或者管理人应当按照有关强制性标准和技术规范的要求及时设置警示标志,向海事管理机构报告碍航物的名称、形状、尺寸、位置和深度,并在海事管理机构限定的期限内打捞清除。碍航物的所有人放弃所有权的,不免除其打捞清除义务。 不能确定碍航物的所有人、经营人或者管理人的,海事管理机构应当组织设置标志、打捞或者采取相应措施,发生的费用纳入部门预算。 第五十二条 有下列情形之一,对海上交通安全有较大影响的,海事管理机构应当根据具体情况采取停航、限速或者划定交通管制区等相应交通管制措施并向社会公告: (一)天气、海况恶劣; (二)发生影响航行的海上险情或者海上交通事故; (三)进行军事训练、演习或者其他相关活动; (四)开展大型水上水下活动; (五)特定海域通航密度接近饱和; (六)其他对海上交通安全有较大影响的情形。 第五十三条 国务院交通运输主管部门为维护海上交通安全、保护海洋环境,可以会同有关主管部门采取必要措施,防止和制止外国籍船舶在领海的非无害通过。 第五十四条 下列外国籍船舶进出中华人民共和国领海,应当向海事管理机构报告: (一)潜水器; (二)核动力船舶; (三)载运放射性物质或者其他有毒有害物质的船舶; (四)法律、行政法规或者国务院规定的可能危及中华人民共和国海上交通安全的其他船舶。 前款规定的船舶通过中华人民共和国领海,应当持有有关证书,采取符合中华人民共和国法律、行政法规和规章规定的特别预防措施,并接受海事管理机构的指令和监督。 第五十五条 除依照本法规定获得进入口岸许可外,外国籍船舶不得进入中华人民共和国内水;但是,因人员病急、机件故障、遇难、避风等紧急情况未及获得许可的可以进入。 外国籍船舶因前款规定的紧急情况进入中华人民共和国内水的,应当在进入的同时向海事管理机构紧急报告,接受海事管理机构的指令和监督。海事管理机构应当及时通报管辖海域的海警机构、就近的出入境边防检查机关和当地公安机关、海关等其他主管部门。 第五十六条 中华人民共和国军用船舶执行军事任务、公务船舶执行公务,遇有紧急情况,在保证海上交通安全的前提下,可以不受航行、停泊、作业有关规则的限制。 第五章 海上客货运输安全 第五十七条 除进行抢险或者生命救助外,客船应当按照船舶检验证书核定的载客定额载运乘客,货船载运货物应当符合船舶检验证书核定的载重线和载货种类,不得载运乘客。 第五十八条 客船载运乘客不得同时载运危险货物。 乘客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带法律、行政法规或者国务院交通运输主管部门规定的危险物品。 第五十九条 客船应当在显著位置向乘客明示安全须知,设置安全标志和警示,并向乘客介绍救生用具的使用方法以及在紧急情况下应当采取的应急措施。乘客应当遵守安全乘船要求。 第六十条 海上渡口所在地的县级以上地方人民政府应当建立健全渡口安全管理责任制,制定海上渡口的安全管理办法,监督、指导海上渡口经营者落实安全主体责任,维护渡运秩序,保障渡运安全。 海上渡口的渡运线路由渡口所在地的县级以上地方人民政府交通运输主管部门会同海事管理机构划定。渡船应当按照划定的线路安全渡运。 遇有恶劣天气、海况,县级以上地方人民政府或者其指定的部门应当发布停止渡运的公告。 第六十一条 船舶载运货物,应当按照有关法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范的要求安全装卸、积载、隔离、系固和管理。 第六十二条 船舶载运危险货物,应当持有有效的危险货物适装证书,并根据危险货物的特性和应急措施的要求,编制危险货物应急处置预案,配备相应的消防、应急设备和器材。 第六十三条 托运人托运危险货物,应当将其正式名称、危险性质以及应当采取的防护措施通知承运人,并按照有关法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范的要求妥善包装,设置明显的危险品标志和标签。 托运人不得在托运的普通货物中夹带危险货物或者将危险货物谎报为普通货物托运。 托运人托运的货物为国际海上危险货物运输规则和国家危险货物品名表上未列明但具有危险特性的货物的,托运人还应当提交有关专业机构出具的表明该货物危险特性以及应当采取的防护措施等情况的文件。 货物危险特性的判断标准由国家海事管理机构制定并公布。 第六十四条 船舶载运危险货物进出港口,应当符合下列条件,经海事管理机构许可,并向海事管理机构报告进出港口和停留的时间等事项: (一)所载运的危险货物符合海上安全运输要求; (二)船舶的装载符合所持有的证书、文书的要求; (三)拟靠泊或者进行危险货物装卸作业的港口、码头、泊位具备有关法律、行政法规规定的危险货物作业经营资质。 海事管理机构应当自收到申请之时起二十四小时内作出许可或者不予许可的决定。 定船舶、定航线并且定货种的船舶可以申请办理一定期限内多次进出港口许可,期限不超过三十日。海事管理机构应当自收到申请之日起五个工作日内作出许可或者不予许可的决定。 海事管理机构予以许可的,应当通报港口行政管理部门。 第六十五条 船舶、海上设施从事危险货物运输或者装卸、过驳作业,应当编制作业方案,遵守有关强制性标准和安全作业操作规程,采取必要的预防措施,防止发生安全事故。 在港口水域外从事散装液体危险货物过驳作业的,还应当符合下列条件,经海事管理机构许可并核定安全作业区: (一)拟进行过驳作业的船舶或者海上设施符合海上交通安全与防治船舶污染海洋环境的要求; (二)拟过驳的货物符合安全过驳要求; (三)参加过驳作业的人员具备法律、行政法规规定的过驳作业能力; (四)拟作业水域及其底质、周边环境适宜开展过驳作业; (五)过驳作业对海洋资源以及附近的军事目标、重要民用目标不构成威胁; (六)有符合安全要求的过驳作业方案、安全保障措施和应急预案。 对单航次作业的船舶,海事管理机构应当自收到申请之时起二十四小时内作出许可或者不予许可的决定;对在特定水域多航次作业的船舶,海事管理机构应当自收到申请之日起五个工作日内作出许可或者不予许可的决定。 第六章 海上搜寻救助 第六十六条 海上遇险人员依法享有获得生命救助的权利。生命救助优先于环境和财产救助。 第六十七条 海上搜救工作应当坚持政府领导、统一指挥、属地为主、专群结合、就近快速的原则。 第六十八条 国家建立海上搜救协调机制,统筹全国海上搜救应急反应工作,研究解决海上搜救工作中的重大问题,组织协调重大海上搜救应急行动。协调机制由国务院有关部门、单位和有关军事机关组成。 中国海上搜救中心和有关地方人民政府设立的海上搜救中心或者指定的机构(以下统称海上搜救中心)负责海上搜救的组织、协调、指挥工作。 第六十九条 沿海县级以上地方人民政府应当安排必要的海上搜救资金,保障搜救工作的正常开展。 第七十条 海上搜救中心各成员单位应当在海上搜救中心统一组织、协调、指挥下,根据各自职责,承担海上搜救应急、抢险救灾、支持保障、善后处理等工作。 第七十一条 国家设立专业海上搜救队伍,加强海上搜救力量建设。专业海上搜救队伍应当配备专业搜救装备,建立定期演练和日常培训制度,提升搜救水平。 国家鼓励社会力量建立海上搜救队伍,参与海上搜救行动。 第七十二条 船舶、海上设施、航空器及人员在海上遇险的,应当立即报告海上搜救中心,不得瞒报、谎报海上险情。 船舶、海上设施、航空器及人员误发遇险报警信号的,除立即向海上搜救中心报告外,还应当采取必要措施消除影响。 其他任何单位、个人发现或者获悉海上险情的,应当立即报告海上搜救中心。 第七十三条 发生碰撞事故的船舶、海上设施,应当互通名称、国籍和登记港,在不严重危及自身安全的情况下尽力救助对方人员,不得擅自离开事故现场水域或者逃逸。 第七十四条 遇险的船舶、海上设施及其所有人、经营人或者管理人应当采取有效措施防止、减少生命财产损失和海洋环境污染。 船舶遇险时,乘客应当服从船长指挥,配合采取相关应急措施。乘客有权获知必要的险情信息。 船长决定弃船时,应当组织乘客、船员依次离船,并尽力抢救法定航行资料。船长应当最后离船。 第七十五条 船舶、海上设施、航空器收到求救信号或者发现有人遭遇生命危险的,在不严重危及自身安全的情况下,应当尽力救助遇险人员。 第七十六条 海上搜救中心接到险情报告后,应当立即进行核实,及时组织、协调、指挥政府有关部门、专业搜救队伍、社会有关单位等各方力量参加搜救,并指定现场指挥。参加搜救的船舶、海上设施、航空器及人员应当服从现场指挥,及时报告搜救动态和搜救结果。 搜救行动的中止、恢复、终止决定由海上搜救中心作出。未经海上搜救中心同意,参加搜救的船舶、海上设施、航空器及人员不得擅自退出搜救行动。 军队参加海上搜救,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定执行。 第七十七条 遇险船舶、海上设施、航空器或者遇险人员应当服从海上搜救中心和现场指挥的指令,及时接受救助。 遇险船舶、海上设施、航空器不配合救助的,现场指挥根据险情危急情况,可以采取相应救助措施。 第七十八条 海上事故或者险情发生后,有关地方人民政府应当及时组织医疗机构为遇险人员提供紧急医疗救助,为获救人员提供必要的生活保障,并组织有关方面采取善后措施。 第七十九条 在中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约规定由我国承担搜救义务的海域内开展搜救,依照本章规定执行。 中国籍船舶在中华人民共和国管辖海域以及海上搜救责任区域以外的其他海域发生险情的,中国海上搜救中心接到信息后,应当依据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定开展国际协作。 第七章 海上交通事故调查处理 第八十条 船舶、海上设施发生海上交通事故,应当及时向海事管理机构报告,并接受调查。 第八十一条 海上交通事故根据造成的损害后果分为特别重大事故、重大事故、较大事故和一般事故。事故等级划分的人身伤亡标准依照有关安全生产的法律、行政法规的规定确定;事故等级划分的直接经济损失标准,由国务院交通运输主管部门会同国务院有关部门根据海上交通事故中的特殊情况确定,报国务院批准后公布施行。 第八十二条 特别重大海上交通事故由国务院或者国务院授权的部门组织事故调查组进行调查,海事管理机构应当参与或者配合开展调查工作。 其他海上交通事故由海事管理机构组织事故调查组进行调查,有关部门予以配合。国务院认为有必要的,可以直接组织或者授权有关部门组织事故调查组进行调查。 海事管理机构进行事故调查,事故涉及执行军事运输任务的,应当会同有关军事机关进行调查;涉及渔业船舶的,渔业渔政主管部门、海警机构应当参与调查。 第八十三条 调查海上交通事故,应当全面、客观、公正、及时,依法查明事故事实和原因,认定事故责任。 第八十四条 海事管理机构可以根据事故调查处理需要拆封、拆解当事船舶的航行数据记录装置或者读取其记录的信息,要求船舶驶向指定地点或者禁止其离港,扣留船舶或者海上设施的证书、文书、物品、资料等并妥善保管。有关人员应当配合事故调查。 第八十五条 海上交通事故调查组应当自事故发生之日起九十日内提交海上交通事故调查报告;特殊情况下,经负责组织事故调查组的部门负责人批准,提交事故调查报告的期限可以适当延长,但延长期限最长不得超过九十日。事故技术鉴定所需时间不计入事故调查期限。 海事管理机构应当自收到海上交通事故调查报告之日起十五个工作日内作出事故责任认定书,作为处理海上交通事故的证据。 事故损失较小、事实清楚、责任明确的,可以依照国务院交通运输主管部门的规定适用简易调查程序。 海上交通事故调查报告、事故责任认定书应当依照有关法律、行政法规的规定向社会公开。 第八十六条 中国籍船舶在中华人民共和国管辖海域外发生海上交通事故的,应当及时向海事管理机构报告事故情况并接受调查。 外国籍船舶在中华人民共和国管辖海域外发生事故,造成中国公民重伤或者死亡的,海事管理机构根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定参与调查。 第八十七条 船舶、海上设施在海上遭遇恶劣天气、海况以及意外事故,造成或者可能造成损害,需要说明并记录时间、海域以及所采取的应对措施等具体情况的,可以向海事管理机构申请办理海事声明签注。海事管理机构应当依照规定提供签注服务。 第八章 监督管理 第八十八条 海事管理机构对在中华人民共和国管辖海域内从事航行、停泊、作业以及其他与海上交通安全相关的活动,依法实施监督检查。 海事管理机构依照中华人民共和国法律、行政法规以及中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约对外国籍船舶实施港口国、沿岸国监督检查。 海事管理机构工作人员执行公务时,应当按照规定着装,佩戴职衔标志,出示执法证件,并自觉接受监督。 海事管理机构依法履行监督检查职责,有关单位、个人应当予以配合,不得拒绝、阻碍依法实施的监督检查。 第八十九条 海事管理机构实施监督检查可以采取登船检查、查验证书、现场检查、询问有关人员、电子监控等方式。 载运危险货物的船舶涉嫌存在瞒报、谎报危险货物等情况的,海事管理机构可以采取开箱查验等方式进行检查。海事管理机构应当将开箱查验情况通报有关部门。港口经营人和有关单位、个人应当予以协助。 第九十条 海事管理机构对船舶、海上设施实施监督检查时,应当避免、减少对其正常作业的影响。 除法律、行政法规另有规定或者不立即实施监督检查可能造成严重后果外,不得拦截正在航行中的船舶进行检查。 第九十一条 船舶、海上设施对港口安全具有威胁的,海事管理机构应当责令立即或者限期改正、限制操作,责令驶往指定地点、禁止进港或者将其驱逐出港。 船舶、海上设施处于不适航或者不适拖状态,船员、海上设施上的相关人员未持有有效的法定证书、文书,或者存在其他严重危害海上交通安全、污染海洋环境的隐患的,海事管理机构应当根据情况禁止有关船舶、海上设施进出港,暂扣有关证书、文书或者责令其停航、改航、驶往指定地点或者停止作业。船舶超载的,海事管理机构可以依法对船舶进行强制减载。因强制减载发生的费用由违法船舶所有人、经营人或者管理人承担。 船舶、海上设施发生海上交通事故、污染事故,未结清国家规定的税费、滞纳金且未提供担保或者未履行其他法定义务的,海事管理机构应当责令改正,并可以禁止其离港。 第九十二条 外国籍船舶可能威胁中华人民共和国内水、领海安全的,海事管理机构有权责令其离开。 外国籍船舶违反中华人民共和国海上交通安全或者防治船舶污染的法律、行政法规的,海事管理机构可以依法行使紧追权。 第九十三条 任何单位、个人有权向海事管理机构举报妨碍海上交通安全的行为。海事管理机构接到举报后,应当及时进行核实、处理。 第九十四条 海事管理机构在监督检查中,发现船舶、海上设施有违反其他法律、行政法规行为的,应当依法及时通报或者移送有关主管部门处理。 第九章 法律责任 第九十五条 船舶、海上设施未持有有效的证书、文书的,由海事管理机构责令改正,对违法船舶或者海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款,对船长和有关责任人员处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,暂扣船长、责任船员的船员适任证书十八个月至三十个月,直至吊销船员适任证书;对船舶持有的伪造、变造证书、文书,予以没收;对存在严重安全隐患的船舶,可以依法予以没收。 第九十六条 船舶或者海上设施有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正,对违法船舶或者海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处二万元以上二十万元以下的罚款,对船长和有关责任人员处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,吊销违法船舶所有人、经营人或者管理人的有关证书、文书,暂扣船长、责任船员的船员适任证书十二个月至二十四个月,直至吊销船员适任证书: (一)船舶、海上设施的实际状况与持有的证书、文书不符; (二)船舶未依法悬挂国旗,或者违法悬挂其他国家、地区或者组织的旗帜; (三)船舶未按规定标明船名、船舶识别号、船籍港、载重线标志; (四)船舶、海上设施的配员不符合最低安全配员要求。 第九十七条 在船舶上工作未持有船员适任证书、船员健康证明或者所持船员适任证书、健康证明不符合要求的,由海事管理机构对船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处一万元以上十万元以下的罚款,对责任船员处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,对船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款,暂扣责任船员的船员适任证书六个月至十二个月,直至吊销船员适任证书。 第九十八条 以欺骗、贿赂等不正当手段为中国籍船舶取得相关证书、文书的,由海事管理机构撤销有关许可,没收相关证书、文书,对船舶所有人、经营人或者管理人处四万元以上四十万元以下的罚款。 以欺骗、贿赂等不正当手段取得船员适任证书的,由海事管理机构撤销有关许可,没收船员适任证书,对责任人员处五千元以上五万元以下的罚款。 第九十九条 船员未保持安全值班,违反规定摄入可能影响安全值班的食品、药品或者其他物品,或者有其他违反海上船员值班规则的行为的,由海事管理机构对船长、责任船员处一千元以上一万元以下的罚款,或者暂扣船员适任证书三个月至十二个月;情节严重的,吊销船长、责任船员的船员适任证书。 第一百条 有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正;情节严重的,处三万元以上十万元以下的罚款: (一)建设海洋工程、海岸工程未按规定配备相应的防止船舶碰撞的设施、设备并设置专用航标; (二)损坏海上交通支持服务系统或者妨碍其工作效能; (三)未经海事管理机构同意设置、撤除专用航标,移动专用航标位置或者改变航标灯光、功率等其他状况,或者设置临时航标不符合海事管理机构确定的航标设置点; (四)在安全作业区、港外锚地范围内从事养殖、种植、捕捞以及其他影响海上交通安全的作业或者活动。 第一百零一条 有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正,对有关责任人员处三万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,处三万元以上十万元以下的罚款,并暂扣责任船员的船员适任证书一个月至三个月: (一)承担无线电通信任务的船员和岸基无线电台(站)的工作人员未保持海上交通安全通信频道的值守和畅通,或者使用海上交通安全通信频率交流与海上交通安全无关的内容; (二)违反国家有关规定使用无线电台识别码,影响海上搜救的身份识别; (三)其他违反海上无线电通信规则的行为。 第一百零二条 船舶未依照本法规定申请引航的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款,对船长处一千元以上一万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,暂扣有关船舶证书三个月至十二个月,暂扣船长的船员适任证书一个月至三个月。 引航机构派遣引航员存在过失,造成船舶损失的,由海事管理机构对引航机构处三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款。 未经引航机构指派擅自提供引航服务的,由海事管理机构对引领船舶的人员处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款。 第一百零三条 船舶在海上航行、停泊、作业,有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正,对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处二万元以上二十万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款,暂扣船员适任证书三个月至十二个月;情节严重的,吊销船长、责任船员的船员适任证书: (一)船舶进出港口、锚地或者通过桥区水域、海峡、狭水道、重要渔业水域、通航船舶密集的区域、船舶定线区、交通管制区时,未加强瞭望、保持安全航速并遵守前述区域的特殊航行规则; (二)未按照有关规定显示信号、悬挂标志或者保持足够的富余水深; (三)不符合安全开航条件冒险开航,违章冒险操作、作业,或者未按照船舶检验证书载明的航区航行、停泊、作业; (四)未按照有关规定开启船舶的自动识别、航行数据记录、远程识别和跟踪、通信等与航行安全、保安、防治污染相关的装置,并持续进行显示和记录; (五)擅自拆封、拆解、初始化、再设置航行数据记录装置或者读取其记录的信息; (六)船舶穿越航道妨碍航道内船舶的正常航行,抢越他船船艏或者超过桥梁通航尺度进入桥区水域; (七)船舶违反规定进入或者穿越禁航区; (八)船舶载运或者拖带超长、超高、超宽、半潜的船舶、海上设施或者其他物体航行,未采取特殊的安全保障措施,未在开航前向海事管理机构报告航行计划,未按规定显示信号、悬挂标志,或者拖带移动式平台、浮船坞等大型海上设施未依法交验船舶检验机构出具的拖航检验证书; (九)船舶在不符合安全条件的码头、泊位、装卸站、锚地、安全作业区停泊,或者停泊危及其他船舶、海上设施的安全; (十)船舶违反规定超过检验证书核定的载客定额、载重线、载货种类载运乘客、货物,或者客船载运乘客同时载运危险货物; (十一)客船未向乘客明示安全须知、设置安全标志和警示; (十二)未按照有关法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范的要求安全装卸、积载、隔离、系固和管理货物; (十三)其他违反海上航行、停泊、作业规则的行为。 第一百零四条 国际航行船舶未经许可进出口岸的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员或者其他责任人员,处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,吊销船长、责任船员的船员适任证书。 国内航行船舶进出港口、港外装卸站未依法向海事管理机构报告的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员或者其他责任人员处五百元以上五千元以下的罚款。 第一百零五条 船舶、海上设施未经许可从事海上施工作业,或者未按照许可要求、超出核定的安全作业区进行作业的,由海事管理机构责令改正,对违法船舶、海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款,或者暂扣船员适任证书六个月至十二个月;情节严重的,吊销船长、责任船员的船员适任证书。 从事可能影响海上交通安全的水上水下活动,未按规定提前报告海事管理机构的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶、海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处一万元以上三万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款。 第一百零六条 碍航物的所有人、经营人或者管理人有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正,处二万元以上二十万元以下的罚款;逾期未改正的,海事管理机构有权依法实施代履行,代履行的费用由碍航物的所有人、经营人或者管理人承担: (一)未按照有关强制性标准和技术规范的要求及时设置警示标志; (二)未向海事管理机构报告碍航物的名称、形状、尺寸、位置和深度; (三)未在海事管理机构限定的期限内打捞清除碍航物。 第一百零七条 外国籍船舶进出中华人民共和国内水、领海违反本法规定的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款,对船长处一万元以上三万元以下的罚款。 第一百零八条 载运危险货物的船舶有下列情形之一的,海事管理机构应当责令改正,对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员或者其他责任人员,处五千元以上五万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,责令停止作业或者航行,暂扣船长、责任船员的船员适任证书六个月至十二个月,直至吊销船员适任证书: (一)未经许可进出港口或者从事散装液体危险货物过驳作业; (二)未按规定编制相应的应急处置预案,配备相应的消防、应急设备和器材; (三)违反有关强制性标准和安全作业操作规程的要求从事危险货物装卸、过驳作业。 第一百零九条 托运人托运危险货物,有下列情形之一的,由海事管理机构责令改正,处五万元以上三十万元以下的罚款: (一)未将托运的危险货物的正式名称、危险性质以及应当采取的防护措施通知承运人; (二)未按照有关法律、行政法规、规章以及强制性标准和技术规范的要求对危险货物妥善包装,设置明显的危险品标志和标签; (三)在托运的普通货物中夹带危险货物或者将危险货物谎报为普通货物托运; (四)未依法提交有关专业机构出具的表明该货物危险特性以及应当采取的防护措施等情况的文件。 第一百一十条 船舶、海上设施遇险或者发生海上交通事故后未履行报告义务,或者存在瞒报、谎报情形的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶、海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三千元以上三万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款,暂扣船员适任证书六个月至二十四个月;情节严重的,对违法船舶、海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处一万元以上十万元以下的罚款,吊销船长、责任船员的船员适任证书。 第一百一十一条 船舶发生海上交通事故后逃逸的,由海事管理机构对违法船舶的所有人、经营人或者管理人处十万元以上五十万元以下的罚款,对船长、责任船员处五千元以上五万元以下的罚款并吊销船员适任证书,受处罚者终身不得重新申请。 第一百一十二条 船舶、海上设施不依法履行海上救助义务,不服从海上搜救中心指挥的,由海事管理机构对船舶、海上设施的所有人、经营人或者管理人处三万元以上三十万元以下的罚款,暂扣船长、责任船员的船员适任证书六个月至十二个月,直至吊销船员适任证书。 第一百一十三条 有关单位、个人拒绝、阻碍海事管理机构监督检查,或者在接受监督检查时弄虚作假的,由海事管理机构处二千元以上二万元以下的罚款,暂扣船长、责任船员的船员适任证书六个月至二十四个月,直至吊销船员适任证书。 第一百一十四条 交通运输主管部门、海事管理机构及其他有关部门的工作人员违反本法规定,滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊的,依法给予处分。 第一百一十五条 因海上交通事故引发民事纠纷的,当事人可以依法申请仲裁或者向人民法院提起诉讼。 第一百一十六条 违反本法规定,构成违反治安管理行为的,依法给予治安管理处罚;造成人身、财产损害的,依法承担民事责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。 第十章 附  则 第一百一十七条 本法下列用语的含义是: 船舶,是指各类排水或者非排水的船、艇、筏、水上飞行器、潜水器、移动式平台以及其他移动式装置。 海上设施,是指水上水下各种固定或者浮动建筑、装置和固定平台,但是不包括码头、防波堤等港口设施。 内水,是指中华人民共和国领海基线向陆地一侧至海岸线的海域。 施工作业,是指勘探、采掘、爆破,构筑、维修、拆除水上水下构筑物或者设施,航道建设、疏浚(航道养护疏浚除外)作业,打捞沉船沉物。 海上交通事故,是指船舶、海上设施在航行、停泊、作业过程中发生的,由于碰撞、搁浅、触礁、触碰、火灾、风灾、浪损、沉没等原因造成人员伤亡或者财产损失的事故。 海上险情,是指对海上生命安全、水域环境构成威胁,需立即采取措施规避、控制、减轻和消除的各种情形。 危险货物,是指国际海上危险货物运输规则和国家危险货物品名表上列明的,易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性、有污染危害性等,在船舶载运过程中可能造成人身伤害、财产损失或者环境污染而需要采取特别防护措施的货物。 海上渡口,是指海上岛屿之间、海上岛屿与大陆之间,以及隔海相望的大陆与大陆之间,专用于渡船渡运人员、行李、车辆的交通基础设施。 第一百一十八条 公务船舶检验、船员配备的具体办法由国务院交通运输主管部门会同有关主管部门另行制定。 体育运动船舶的登记、检验办法由国务院体育主管部门另行制定。训练、比赛期间的体育运动船舶的海上交通安全监督管理由体育主管部门负责。 渔业船员、渔业无线电、渔业航标的监督管理,渔业船舶的登记管理,渔港水域内的海上交通安全管理,渔业船舶(含外国籍渔业船舶)之间交通事故的调查处理,由县级以上人民政府渔业渔政主管部门负责。法律、行政法规或者国务院对渔业船舶之间交通事故的调查处理另有规定的,从其规定。 除前款规定外,渔业船舶的海上交通安全管理由海事管理机构负责。渔业船舶的检验及其监督管理,由海事管理机构依照有关法律、行政法规的规定执行。 浮式储油装置等海上石油、天然气生产设施的检验适用有关法律、行政法规的规定。 第一百一十九条 海上军事管辖区和军用船舶、海上设施的内部海上交通安全管理,军用航标的设立和管理,以及为军事目的进行作业或者水上水下活动的管理,由中央军事委员会另行制定管理办法。 划定、调整海上交通功能区或者领海内特定水域,划定海上渡口的渡运线路,许可海上施工作业,可能对军用船舶的战备、训练、执勤等行动造成影响的,海事管理机构应当事先征求有关军事机关的意见。 执行军事运输任务有特殊需要的,有关军事机关应当及时向海事管理机构通报相关信息。海事管理机构应当给予必要的便利。 海上交通安全管理涉及国防交通、军事设施保护的,依照有关法律的规定执行。 第一百二十条 外国籍公务船舶在中华人民共和国领海航行、停泊、作业,违反中华人民共和国法律、行政法规的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定处理。 在中华人民共和国管辖海域内的外国籍军用船舶的管理,适用有关法律的规定。 第一百二十一条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。 第一百二十二条 本法自2021年9月1日起施行。
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    发布于:2022-02-09 15:55:13
  • 船舶碰撞1972年国际海上避碰规则
    1972年国际海上避碰规则第一章总则第一条适用范围1.本规则各条适用于在公海和连接于公海而可供海船航行的一切水域中的一切船舶。2.本规则各条不妨碍有关主管机关为连接于公海而可供海船航行的任何港外锚地、港口、江河、湖泊或内陆水道所制订的特殊规定的实施。这种特殊规定,应尽可能符合本规则各条。3.本规则各条,不妨障各国政府为军舰及护航下的船舶所制订的关于额外的队形灯、信号灯、号型或笛号,或者为结队从事捕鱼的渔船所制定的关于额外的队形灯、信号灯或号型的任何特殊规定的实施。这些额外的队形灯、信号灯、号型或笛号,应尽可能不致被误认为本规则其他条文所规定的任何号灯、号型或信号。4.为实施本规则,本组织可以采纳分道通航制。5.凡经有关政府确定,某种特殊构造或用途的船舶,如须完全遵守本规则任何一条关于号灯或号型的数量、位置、能见距离或弧度以及声号设备的配置和特性的规定,就不能不影响其特殊功能时,则应遵守其政府在号灯或号型的数量、位置、能见距离或弧度以及声号设备的配置和特性方面为之另行确定的,尽可能符合本规则所要求的规定。第二条责任1.本规则各条并不免除任何船舶或其所有人,船长或船员由于对遵守本规则各条的任何疏忽,或者对海员通常做法或当时特殊情况可能要求的任何戒备上的疏忽而产生的各种后果的责任。2.在解释和遵行本规则各条规定时,应适当考虑到,为避免紧迫危险而须背离本规则各条规定的一切航行和碰撞的危险,以及任何特殊情况,其中包括当事船舶条件限制在内。第三条一般定义除其他条文另有解释外,在本规则中:1.“船舶”一词,指用作或者能够用作水上运输工具的各类水上船筏,包括非排水船舶和水上飞机。2.“机动船”一词,指用机器推进的任何船舶。3.“帆船”一词,指任何驶帆的船舶,包括装有推进机器而不在使用者。4.“从事捕鱼的船舶”一词,指使用网具、绳钓、拖网或其他使其操纵性能受到限制的渔具捕鱼的任何船舶,但不包括使用曳绳钓或其他并不使其操纵性能受到限制的渔具捕鱼的船舶。5.“水上飞机”一词,包括为能在水面操纵而设计的任何航空器。6.“失去控制的船舶”一词,指由于某种异常的情况,不能按本规则各条的要求进行操纵,因而不能给他船让路的船舶。7.“操纵能力受到限制的船舶”一词,指由于工作性质,使其按本规则要求进行操纵的能力受到限制,因而不能给他船让路的船舶。“操纵能力受到限制的船舶”一词应包括,但不限于下列船舶:(1)从事敷设、维修或起捞助航标志、海底电缆或管道的船舶;(2)从事疏浚、测量或水下作业的船舶;(3)在航中从事补给或转运人员、食品或货物的船舶;(4)从事发放或回收航空器的船舶;(5)从事清除水雷作业的船舶;(6)从事拖带作业的船舶,而该项拖带作业使该拖船及其被拖船偏离所驶航向的能力严重受到限制者。8.“限于吃水的船舶”一词,指由于吃水与可用水深的关系,致使其偏离所驶航向的能力严重地受到限制的机动船。9.“在航”一词,指船舶不在锚泊、系岸或搁浅。10.船舶的“长度”和“宽度”是指其总长度和最大宽度。11.只有当一船能自他船以视觉看到时,才应认为两船是在互见中。12.“能见度不良”一词,指任何由于雾、霾、下雪、暴风雨、沙暴或任何其他类似原因而使能见度受到限制的情况。第二章驾驶和航行规则第一节船舶在任何能见度情况下的行动规则第四条适用范围本节各条适用于任何能见度的情况。第五条僚望每一船舶应经常用视觉,听觉以及适合当时环境和情况下一切有效的手段保持正规的僚望,以便对局面和碰撞危险作出充分的估计。第六条安全航速每一船舶在任何时候均应用安全航速行驶,以便能采取适当而有效的避碰行动,并能在适合当时环境和情况的距离以内把船停住。在决定安全航速时,考虑的因素中应包括下列各点:1.对所有船舶:(1)能见度情况:(2)通航密度,包括渔船或者任何其他船舶的密集程度:(3)船舶的操纵性能,特别是在当时情况下的冲程和旋回性能;(4)夜间出现的背景亮光,诸如来自岸上的灯光或本船灯光的反向散射;(5)风、浪和流的状况以及靠近航海危险物的情况;(6)吃水与可用水深的关系。2.对备有可使用的雷达的船舶,还须考虑:(1)雷达设备的特性、效率和局限性;(2)所选用的雷达距离标尺带来的任何限制;(3)海况、天气和其他干扰源对雷达探测的影响;(4)在适当距离内,雷达对小船、浮水和其他漂浮物有探测不到的可能性;(5)雷达探测到的船舶数目、位置和动态;(6)当用雷达测定附近船舶或其他物体的距离时,可能对能见度作出的更确切的估计。第七条碰撞危险1.每一船舶应用适合当时环境和情况的一切有效手段断定是否存在碰撞危险,如有任何怀疑,则应认为存在这种危险。2.如装有雷达设备并可使用的话,则应正确予以使用,包括远距离扫瞄,以便获得碰撞危险的早期警报,并对探测到的物标进行雷达标绘或与其相当的系统观察。3.不应当根据不充分的资料,特别是不充分的雷达观测资料作出推断。4.在断定是否存在碰撞危险时,考虑的因素中应包括下列各点:(1)如果来船的罗经方位没有明显的变化,则应认为存在这种危险:(2)即使有明显的方位变化,有时也可能存在这种危险,特别是在驶近一艘很大的船舶或拖带船组时,或是在近距离驶近他船时。第八条避免碰撞的行动1.为避免碰撞所采取的任何行动,如当时环境许可,应是积极地,并应及早地进行和注意运用良好的船艺。2.为避免碰撞而作的航向和(或)航速的任何变动,如当时环境许可,应大得足以使他船用视觉或雷达观察时容易察觉到;应避免对航向和(或)航速作一连串的小变动。3.如有足够的水域,则单用转向可能是避免紧迫局面的最有效行动,倘若这种行动是及时的,大幅度的并且不致造成另一紧迫局面。4.为避免与他船碰撞而采取的行动,应能导致在安全的距离驶过,应细心查核避让行动的有效性,直到最后驶过让清他船为止。5.如须避免碰撞或须留有更多时间来估计局面,船舶应当减速或者停止或倒转推进器把船停住。第九条狭水道1.船舶沿狭水道或航道行驶时,只要安全可行,应尽量靠近本船右舷的该水道或航道的外缘行驶。2.帆船或者长度小于20米的船舶,不应妨碍只能在狭水道或航道以内安全航行的船舶通行。3.从事捕渔的船舶,不应妨碍任何其他在狭水道或航道以内航行的船舶通行。4.船舶不应穿越狭水道或航道,如果这种穿越会妨碍只能在这种水道或航道以内安全航行的船舶通行,后者若对穿越船的意图有怀疑时,可以使用第三十四条4款所规定的声号。5.(1)在狭水道或航道内,如只有在被追越船必须采取行动以允许安全通过才能追越时,则企图追越的船,应鸣放第三十四条3款(1)项所规定的相应声号,以表示本船的意图。被迫越船如果同意,应鸣放三十四条3款(2)项所规定的相应声号,并采取使之能安全通过的措施。如有怀疑,则可以鸣放第三十四条4款所规定的声号。(2)本条并不解除追越船根据第十三条所负的义务。6.船舶在驶近可能被居间障碍物遮蔽他船的狭水道或航道的弯头或地段时,应特别机警和谨慎地驾驶;并鸣放第三十四条5款所规定的相应声号。7.任何船舶,如当时环境许可,都应避免在狭水道内锚泊。第十条分道通航制1.本条适用于本组织所采纳的各分道通航制。2.使用分道通航制区域的船舶应:(1)在相应的通航分道内顺着该分道的船舶总流向行驶;(2)尽可能让开通航分隔线或分隔带;(3)通常在通航分道的端部驶进或驶出,但从分道的任何一侧驶进或驶出时,应与分道的船舶总流向形成尽可能小的角度。3.船舶应尽可能避免穿越通航分道,但如不得不穿越时,应尽可能与分道的船舶总流向成直角穿越。4.凡可安全使用邻近分道通航制区域中相应通航分道的过境航行,通常不应使用沿岸通航带。但长度小于20米的船舶和帆船在任何情况下都可使用沿岸通航带。5.除穿越船或者驶进或驶出通航分道的船舶外,船舶通常不应进入分隔带或穿越分隔线,除非:(1)在紧急情况下避免紧迫危险;(2)在分隔带内从事捕鱼。6.船舶在分道通航制区域端部附近行驶时,应特别谨慎。7.船舶应尽可能避免在分道通航制区域内或其端部附近锚泊。8.不使用分道通航制区域的船舶,应尽可能远离该区。9.从事捕鱼的船舶,不应妨碍按通航分道行驶的任何船舶的通行。10.帆船或长度小于20米的船舶,不应妨碍按通航分道行驶的机动船的安全通行。11.操纵能力受到限制的船舶,当在分道通航制区域内从事维护航行安全的作业时,在执行该作业所必需的限度内,可免受本条规定的约束。12.操纵能力受到限制的船舶,当在分道通航制区域内从事敷设、维修或起捞海底电缆时,在执行该作业所必需的限度内,可免受本条规定的约束。第二节船舶在互见中的行动规则第十一条适用范围本节各条适用于互见中的船舶。第十二条帆船1.两艘帆船相互驶近致有构成碰撞危险时,其中一船应按下列规定给他船让路:(1)两船在不同舷受风时,左舷受风的船应给他船让路;(2)两船在同舷受风时,上风船应给下风船让路;(3)如左舷受风的船看到在上风的船而不能断定究竟该船是左舷受风还是右舷受风,则应该给船让路。2.就本条规定而言,船舶的受风舷侧应认为是主帆被吹向的一舷的对面舷侧;对于方帆船,则应认为是最大纵帆被吹向的一舷的对面舷侧。第十三条追越1.不论第二章第一节和第二节的各条规定如何,任何船舶在追越任何他船时,均应给被追越船让路。2.一船正从他船正横后大于22.5度的某一方向赶上他船时,即该船对其所追越的船所处位置,在夜间只能看见被追越船的尾灯而不能看见它的任一舷灯时,应认为是在追越中。3.当一船对其是否在追越他船有任何怀疑时,该船应假定是在追越,并应采取相应行动。4.随后两船间方位的任何改变,都不应把追越船作为本规则各条含义中所指的交叉船,或者免除其让开被追越船的责任,直到最后驶过让清为止。第十四条对遇局面1.当两艘机动船在相反的或接近相反的航向上相遇致有构成碰撞危险时,各应向右转向,从而各从他船的左舷驶过。2.当一船看见他船在正前方或接近正前方:即在夜间,能看见他船的前后桅灯成一直线或接近一直线,和(或)两盏舷灯;在日间,看到他船的上述相应形态时,则应认为存在这样的局面。3.当一船对是否存在这样的局面有任何怀疑时,该船应假定确实存在这种局面,并应采取相应的行动。第十五条交叉相遇局面当两艘机动船交叉相遇致有构成碰撞危险时,有他船在本船右舷的船舶应给他船让路,如当时环境许可,还应避免横越他船的前方。第十六条让路船的行动须给他船让路的船舶,应尽可能及早采取大辐度的行动,宽裕地让清他船。第十七条直航船的行动1.(1)两船中的一船应给另一船让路时,另一船应保持航向和航速。(2)然而,当保持航向和航速的船一经发觉规定的让路船显然没有遵照本规则各条采取适当行动时,该船即可独自采取操纵行动,以避免碰撞。2.当规定保持航向和航速的船,发觉本船不论由于何种原因逼近到单凭让路船的行动不能避免碰撞时,也应采取最有助于避碰的行动。3.在交叉相遇局面下,机动船按照本条1款(2)项采取行动以避免与另一艘机动船碰撞时,如当时环境许可,不应对在本船左舷的船采取向左转向。4.本条并不解除让路船的让路义务。第十八条船舶之间的责任除第九、十和十三条另有规定外:1.机动船在航时应给下述船舶让路:(1)失去控制的船舶;(2)操纵能力受到限制的船舶;(3)从事捕鱼的船舶;(4)帆船。2.帆船在航时应给下述船舶让路:(1)失去控制的船舶;(2)操纵能力受到限制的船舶;(3)从事捕鱼的船舶。3.从事捕鱼的船舶在航时,应尽可能给下述船舶让路:(1)失去控制的船舶;(2)操纵能力受到限制的船舶。4.(1)除失去控制的船舶或操纵能力受到限制的船舶外,任何船舶,如当时环境许可,应避免妨碍显示第二十八条信号的限于吃水的船舶的安全通行。(2)限于吃水的船舶应充分注意到其特殊条件,特别谨慎地驾驶。5.在水面的水上飞机,通常应宽裕地让清所有船舶并避免妨碍其航行。然而在有碰撞危险的情况下,则应遵守本章各条的规定。第三节船舶在能见度不良时的行动规则第十九条船舶在能见度不良时的行动规则1.本条适用于在能见度不良的水域中或在其附近航行时相互看不见的船舶。2.每一船舶应以适合当时能见度不良的环境和情况的安全航速行驶,机动船应将机器作好随时操纵的准备。3.在遵守本章第一节各条时,每一船舶应适当考虑到当时能见度不良的环境和情况。4.一船仅凭雷达测到他船时,应判定是否正在形成紧迫局面和(或)存在着碰撞危险。若是如此,应及早地采取避让行动,这种行动如包括转向,则应尽可能避免如下各点:(1)除对被追越船外,对正横前的船舶采取向左转向:(2)对正横或正横后的船舶采取朝着它转向。5.除已断定不存在碰撞危险外,每一船舶当听到他船的雾号显似在本船正横以前,或者与正横以前的他船不能避免紧迫局面时,应将航速减到能维持其航向的最小速度。必要时,应把船完全停住,而且,无论如何,应极其谨慎地驾驶,直到碰撞危险过去为止。第三章号灯和号型第二十条适用范围1.本章各条在各种天气中都应遵守。2.有关号灯的各条规定,从日没到日出时都应遵守。在此时间内不应显示别的灯光,但那些不会被误认为本规则各条订明的号灯,或者不会削弱号灯的能见距离或显著特性,或者不会妨碍正规了望的灯光除外。3.本规则各条所规定的号灯,如已设置,也应在能见度不良的情况下从日出到日没时显示,并可在一切其他认为必要的情况下显示。4.有关号型的各条规定,在白天都应遵守。5.本规则各条订明的号灯和号型,应符合本规则附录一的规定。第二十一条定义1.“桅灯”是指安置在船的首尾中心线上方的白灯,在225度的水平弧内显示不间断的灯光,其装置要使灯光从船的正前方到每一舷正横后22.5度内显示。2.“舷灯”是指右舷的绿灯和左舷的红灯,各在112.5度的水平弧内显示不间断的灯光,其装置要使灯光从船的正前方到各自一舷的正横后22.5度内分别显示。长度小于20米的船舶。其舷灯可以合并成一盏,装设于船的首尾中心线上。3.是“尾灯”指安置在尽可能接近船尾的白灯,在135度的水平弧内显示不间断的灯光,其装置要使灯光从船的正后方到每一舷67.5度内显示。4.“拖带灯”是指具有与本条3款所述“尾灯”相同特性的黄灯。5.“环照灯”是指在360度的水平弧内显示不间断灯光的号灯。6.“闪光灯”是指每隔一定时间以每分钟频率120闪次或120以上闪次的闪光的号灯。第二十二条号灯的能见距离本规则各条规定的号灯,应具有本规则附录一第8节订明的发光强度,以便在下列最小距离上能被看到:1.长度为50米或50米以上的船舶:——桅灯,6海里;——舷灯,3海里;——尾灯,3海里;——拖带灯,3海里;——白、红、绿或黄色环照灯,3海里。2.长度为12米或12米以上但小于50米的船舶:——桅灯,5海里;但长度小于20米的船舶,3海里——舷灯,2海里;——尾灯,2海里;——拖带灯,2海里;——白、红、绿或黄色环照灯,2海里。3.长度小于12米的船舶:——桅灯,2海里;——舷灯,1海里;——尾灯,2海里;——拖带灯,2海里;——白、红、绿或黄色环照灯,2海里。4.不易觉察的,部分淹没的被拖船舶或物体:——白色环照灯,3海里。第二十三条在航机动船1.在航机动船应显示:(1)在前部一盏桅灯;(2)第二盏桅灯,后于并高于前桅灯;长度小于50米的船舶,不要求显示该桅灯,但可以这样做;(3)两盏舷灯;(4)一盏尾灯。2.气垫船在非排水状态下航行时,除本条1款规定的号灯外,还应显示一盏环照黄色闪光灯。3.(1)长度小于12米的机动船,可以显示一盏环照白灯和舷灯以代替本条1款规定的号灯;(2)长度小于7米且其最高速度不超过7节的机动船,可以显示一盏环照白灯以代替本条1款规定的号灯。如可行,也应显示舷灯;(3)长度小于12米的机动船的桅灯或环照白灯,如果不可能装设在船的首尾中心线上,可以离开中心线显示,如果其舷灯合并成一盏,则应装在船的首尾中心线上,或尽量装设在桅灯或环照灯所在首尾线的附近。第二十四条拖带和顶推1.机动船当拖带时应显示:(1)垂直两盏桅灯,以取代第二十三条1款(1)项或1款(2)项规定的号灯。当从拖轮船尾量到被拖物体后端的拖带长度超过200米时,垂直显示三盏这样的号灯;(2)两盏舷灯;(3)一盏尾灯;(4)一盏拖带灯垂直于尾灯的上方;(5)当拖带长度超过200米时,在最易见处显示一个菱形体号型。2.当一顶推船和一被顶推船牢固地连接成为一组合体时,则应作为一艘机动船,显示第二十三条规定的号灯。3.机动船当顶推或旁拖时,除组合体外,应显示:(1)垂直两盏桅灯,以取代第二十三条1款(1)项或1款(2)项规定的号灯;(2)两盏舷灯;(3)一盏尾灯;(4)适用本条1或3款的机动船,还应遵守第二十三条1款(2)项的规定。5.除本条7款所述外,一被拖船或拖物体应显示:(1)两盏舷灯;(2)一盏尾灯;(3)当拖带长度超过200米时,在最易见处显示一个菱形体号型。6.任何数目的船舶如作为一组被旁拖或顶推时,应作为一艘船来显示号灯:(1)一艘被顶推船,但不是组合体的组成部分,应在前端显示两盏舷灯;(2)一艘被旁拖的船应显示一尾灯,并在前端显示两盏舷灯。1.一艘不易觉察的、部分淹没的被拖船舶或物体或者这类船舶或物体的组合体应显示:(1)除弹性拖曳体不需要在前端或接近前端处显示灯光外,如宽度小于25米,在前后两端或接近前后两端处各显示一盏环照白灯;(2)如宽度为25米或25米以上时,在两侧最宽处或接近最宽处,另加两盏环照白灯;(3)如长度超过100米,在(1)和(2)项规定的号灯之间,另加若干环照白灯,使得这些灯之间的距离不超过100米;(4)在最后一艘被拖船舶或物体的末端或接近末端处,显示一个菱形体号型,如果拖带长度超过200米时,在尽可能前部的最易见处另加一个菱形体号型。8.凡由于任何充分理由,一被拖船舶或物体不可能显示本条5或7款规定的号灯或号型时,应采取一切可能的措施使被拖船舶或物体上有灯光,或者至少能表明这种船舶或物体的存在。9.凡由于任何充分理由,使得一艘通常不从事拖带作业的船舶不可能按本条1或3款的规定显示号灯,这种船舶在从事拖带另一遇险或需要救助的船舶时,就不要求显示这些号灯,但应采取如第三十六条所准许的一切可能措施来表明拖船与被拖船之间关系的性质,尤其应将拖缆照亮。第二十五条在航帆船和划桨船1.在航帆船应显示:(1)两盏舷灯;(2)一盏尾灯。2.在长度小于20米的帆船上,本条1款规定的号灯可以合并成一盏,装设在桅顶或接近桅顶的最易见处。3.在航帆船,除本条1款规定的号灯外,还可在桅顶或接近桅顶的最易见处,垂直显示两盏环照灯,上红下绿。但这些环照灯不应和本条2款所允许的合色灯同时显示。4.(1)长度小于7米的帆船,如可行,应显示本条1或2款规定的号灯。但如果不这样做,则应在手边备妥白光的电筒一个或点着的白灯一盏,及早显示,以防碰撞。(2)划桨船可以显示本条为帆船规定的号灯,但如不这样做,则应在手边备妥白光的电筒一个或点着的白灯一盏,及早显示,以防碰撞。5.用帆行驶同时也用机器推进的船舶,应在前部最易见处显示一个圆锥体号型,尖端向下。第二十六条渔船1.从事捕鱼的船舶,不论在航还是锚泊,只应显示本条规定的号灯和号型。2.船舶从事拖网作业,即在水中拖曳爬网或其他用作渔具的装置时,应显示:(1)垂直两盏环照灯,上绿下白,或一个由上下垂直、尖端对接的两个圆锥体所组成的号型;长度小于20米的船舶,可以显示一个篮子以取代这种号型;(2)一盏桅灯,后于并高于那盏环照绿灯;长度小于50米的船舶,则不要求显示该桅灯,但可以这样做;(3)当对水移动时,除本款规定的号灯外,还应显示两盏舷灯和一盏尾灯。3.从事捕鱼的船舶,除拖网作业者外,应显示:(1)垂直两盏环照灯,上红下白,或一个由上下垂直、尖端对接的两个圆锥体所组成的号型;长度小于20米的船舶,可以显示一个篮子以取代这种号型;(2)当有外伸渔具,其从船边伸出的水平距离大于150米时,应朝着渔具的方向显示一盏环照白灯或一个尖端向上的圆锥体号型;(3)当对水移动时,除本款规定的号灯外,还应显示两盏舷灯和一盏尾灯。4.在邻近其他从事捕鱼船舶处从事捕鱼的船舶,可以显示本规则附录二所述的额外信号。5.船舶不从事捕鱼时,不应显示本条规定的号灯或号型,而只应显示为其同样长度的船舶所规定的号灯或号型。第二十七条失去控制或操纵能力受到限制的船舶1.失去控制的船舶应显示:(1)在最易见处,垂直两盏环照红灯;(2)在最易见处,垂直两个球体或类似的号型;(3)当对水移动时,除本款规定的号灯外,还应显示两盏舷灯和一盏尾灯。2.操纵能力受到限制的船舶,除从事清除水雷作业的船舶外,应显示:(1)在最易见处,垂直三盏环照灯,最上和最下者应是红色,中间一盏应是白色;(2)在最易见处,垂直三个号型,最上和最下者应是球体,中间一个应是菱形体;(3)当对水移动时,除本款(1)项规定的号灯外,还应显示桅灯、舷灯和尾灯;(4)当锚泊时,除本款(1)和(2)项规定的号灯或号型外,还应显示第三十条规定的一盏或两盏号灯或一个号型。3.从事一项使拖船和被拖体双方在偏离所驶航向的能力上受到严重限制的拖带作业的机动船,除显示第二十四条1款规定的号灯或号型外,还应显示本条2款(1)和(2)项规定的号灯或号型。4.从事疏浚或水下作业的船舶,当其操纵能力受到限制时,应显示本条2款(1)、(2)和(3)项规定的号灯和号型。此外,当存在障碍物时,还应显示:(1)在碍障物存在的一舷,垂直两盏环照红灯或两个球体;(2)在他船可以通过的一舷,垂直两盏环照绿灯或两个菱形体;(3)当锚泊时,应显示本款规定的号灯或号型以取代第三十条规定的号灯或号型。5当从事潜水作业的船舶其尺度使之不可能显示本条4款规定的号灯和号型时,则应显示:(1)在最易见处,垂直三盏环照灯,最上和最下者应是红色,中间一盏应是白色;(2)一个国际信号旗“A”的硬质复制品,其高度不小于1米,并应采取措施以保证周围都能见到。6.从事清除水雷作业的船舶,除第二十三条为机动船规定的号灯或第三十条为锚泊船规定的号灯或号型外,还应显示三盏环照绿灯或三个球体。这些号灯或号型之一应在接近前桅桅顶处显示,其余应在前桅桁两端各显示一个。这些号灯或号型表示他船驶近至清除水雷船1000米以内是危险的。7.除从事潜水作业的船舶外,长度小于12米的船舶,不要求显示本条规定的号灯和号型。第二十八条限于吃水的船舶限于吃水的船舶,除第二十三条为机动船规定的号灯外,还可在最易见处垂直显示三盏环照红灯,或者一个圆柱体。第二十九条引航船舶1.执行引航任务的船舶应显示:(1)在桅顶或接近桅顶处,垂直两盏环照灯,上白下红;(2)当在航时,外加舷灯和尾灯;(3)当锚泊时,除本款1项规定的号灯外,还应显示第三十条对锚泊船规定的号灯或号型。2.引航船当不执行引航任务时,应显示为其同样长度的同类船舶规定的号灯或号型。第三十条锚泊船舶和搁浅船舶1.锚泊中的船舶应在最易见处显示:(1)在船的前部,一盏环照白灯或一个球体;(2)在船尾或接近船尾并低于本款(1)项规定的号灯处,一盏环照白灯。2.长度小于50米的船舶,可以在最易见处显示一盏环照白灯,以取代本条1款规定的号灯。3.锚泊中的船舶,还可以使用现有的工作灯或同等的灯照明甲板,而长度为100米及100米以上的船舶应当使用这类灯。4.搁浅的船舶应显示本条1或2款规定的号灯,并在最易见处外加:(1)垂直两盏环照红灯;(2)垂直三个球体。5.长度小于7米的船舶,不是在狭水道、航道、锚地或其他船舶通常航行的水域中或其附近锚泊时,不要求显示本条1和2款规定的号灯或号型。6.长度小于12米的船舶搁浅时,不要求显示本条4款(1)项和(2)项规定的号灯或号型。第三十一条水上飞机当水上飞机不可能显示按本章各条规定的各种特性或位置的号灯和号型时,则应显示尽可能近似于这种特性和位置的号灯和号型。第四章声响和灯光信号第三十二条定义1.“号笛”一词,指能够发出规定笛声并符合本规则附录三所载规格的任何声响信号器具。2.“短声”一词,指历时约一秒钟的笛声。3.“长声”一词,指历时四到六秒钟的笛声。第三十三条声号设备1.长度为12米或12米以上的船舶,应配备一个号笛和一个号钟,长度为100米或100米以上的船舶,另应配有一面号锣。号锣的音调和声音不可与号钟相混淆。号笛、号钟和号锣应符合本规则附录三所载规格。号钟、号锣或二者可用与其各自声音特性相同的其他设备代替,但任何时候都要能以手动鸣放规定的声号。2.长度小于12米的船舶,不要求备有本条1款规定的声响信号器具。如不备有,则应配置能够鸣放有效声号的它种设备。第三十四条操纵和警告信号1.当船舶在互见中,在航机动船按本规则准许或要求进行操纵时,应用号笛发出下列声号表明之:——一短声表示“我船正在向右转向”;——二短声表示“我船正在向左转向”;——三短声表示“我船正在向后推进”。2.在操作过程中,任何船舶均可用灯号补充本条1款规定的笛号,这种灯号可根据情况予以重复:(1)这些灯号应具有以下意义:——一闪表示“我船正在向右转向”;——二闪表示“我船正在向左转向”;——三闪表示“我船正在向后推进”。(2)每闪历时应约一秒钟,各闪间隔应约1秒钟,前后信号的间隔应不少于10秒钟;(3)如设有用作本信号的号灯,则应是一盏环照白灯,其能见距离至少为5海里,并应符合本规则附录一所载规定。3.在狭水道或航道内互见时:(1)一艘企图追越他船的船舶,应遵照第九条5款(1)项的规定,以号笛发出下列声号表示其意图:——二长声继以一短声,表示“我船企图从你船的右舷追越”;——二长声继以二短声,表示“我船企图从你船的左舷追越”;(2)将要被追越的船舶,当按照第九条5款(1)项行动时,应以号笛依次发出下列声号表示同意:——一长、一短、一长、一短声。4.当互见中的船舶正在互相驶近,并且不论由于何种原因任何一船无法了解他船的意图或行动,或者怀疑他船是否正在采取足够的行动以避免碰撞时,存在怀疑的船应立即用号笛鸣放至少5声短而急的声号以表示这种怀疑。该声号可以用至少5次短而急的闪光来补充。5.船舶在驶近可能被居间障碍物遮蔽他船的水道或航道的弯头或地段时,应鸣放一长声。该声号应由弯头另一面或居间障碍物后方可能听到它的任何来船回答1长声。6.如船上所装几个号笛,其间距大于100米,则只应使用一个号笛鸣放操纵和警告声号。第三十五条能见度不良时使用的声号在能见度不良的水域中或其附近时,不论日间还是夜间,本条规定的声号应使用如下:1.机动船对水移动时,应以每次不超过2分钟的间隔鸣放1长声。2.机动船在航但已停车,并且不对水移动时,应以每次不超过2分钟的间隔连续鸣放2长声,2长声间的间隔约2秒钟。3.失去控制的船舶、操纵能力受到限制的船舶、限于吃水的船舶、帆船、从事捕鱼的船舶,以及从事拖带或顶推他船的船舶,应以每次不超过2分钟的间隔连续鸣放3声,即1长声继以2短声,以取代本条1或2款规定的声号。4.从事捕鱼的船舶锚泊时,以及操纵能力受到限制的船舶在锚泊中执行任务时,应当鸣放本条3款规定的声号以取代本条7款规定的声号。5.一艘被拖船或者多艘被拖船的最后一艘,如配有船员,应以每次不超过2分钟的间隔连续鸣放4声,即1长声继以3短声。当可行时,这种声号应在拖轮鸣放声号之后立即鸣放。6.当一顶推船和一被顶推船牢固地连接成为一个组合体时,应作为一艘机动船,鸣放本条1或2款规定的声号。7.锚泊中的船舶,应以每次不超过1分钟的间隔急敲号钟约5秒钟,长度为100米或100米以上的船舶,应在船的前部敲打号钟,并应在紧接钟声之后,在船的后部急敲号锣约5秒钟。此外,锚泊中的船舶,还可以连续鸣放3声,即一短、一长和一短声,以警告驶近的船舶注意本船位置和碰撞的可能性。8.搁浅的船舶应鸣放本条6款规定的钟号,如有要求,应加发锣号。此外,还应在紧接急敲号钟之前和之后,各分隔而清楚地敲打号钟3下,搁浅的船舶还可以鸣放合适的笛号。9.长度小于12米的船舶,不要求鸣放上述声号,但如不鸣放上述声号,则应以每次不超过2分钟的间隔鸣放他种有效的声号。10.引航船当执行引航任务时,除本条1、2或6款规定的声号外,还可以鸣放由4短声组成的识别声号。第三十六条招引注意的信号如有必要招引他船注意,任何船舶可以发出灯光或声响信号,但这种信号应不致被误认为本规则其他各条所准许的任何信号,或者可用不致妨碍任何船舶的方式把探照灯的光束朝着危险的方向。任何招引他船注意的灯光,应不致被误认为是任何助航标志的灯光。为此目的,应避免使用诸如频闪灯这样高亮度的间歇灯或旋转灯。第三十七条遇险信号船舶遇险并需要救助时,应使用或显示本规则附录四所述的信号。第五章豁免第三十八条豁免在本规则生效之前安放龙骨或处于相应建造阶段的任何船舶(或任何一类船舶)只要符合1960年国际海上避碰规则的要求,则可:1.在本规则生效之日后4年内,免除安装达到第二十二条规定能见距离的号灯。2.在本规则生效之日后4年内,免除安装符合本规则附录一第7节规定的颜色规格的号灯。3.永远免除由于从英制单位变换为米制单位以及丈量数字凑整而产生的号灯位置的调整4.(1)永远免除长度小于150米的船舶由于本规则附录一第3节(1)规定而产生的桅灯位置的调整。(2)在本规则生效之日后9年内,免除长度为150米或150米以上的船舶由于本规则附录一第3节(一)规定而产生的桅灯位置的调整。5.在本规则生效之日后9年内,免除由于本规则附录一第2节(2)规定而产生的桅灯位置的调整。6.在本规则生效之日后9年内,免除由于本规则附录一第2节(7)和第3节(2)规定而产生的舷灯位置的调整。7.在本规则生效之日后9年内,免除本规则附录三对声号器具所规定的要求。8.永远免除由于本规则附录一第9节(8)规定而产生的环照灯位置的调整。附录:一至四(略)
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    发布于:2022-02-09 15:20:45
  • 海难救助劳合社救助合同标准格式1990年版 LOF 1990
    LOF 1990  LLOYD’S STANDARD FORM OFSALVAGE AGREEMENT NOTES 1. Insert name of person signing on be half of Owners of property   to be salved. The Master should sign wherever possible. 2. The Contractor’s name should always be inserted in line 4 and   whenever the Agreement is signed by the Master of the Salving vessel or other   person on behalf of the Contractor the name of the Master or other person   must alsobe inserted in line 4 before the words “for and on behalf of.” The   words “for and on behalf of” should be deleted where a Contractor signs   personally. 3. Insert place if agreed in clause l(a)(i) and currency if agreed   in clause l(e).  (APPROVED AND   PUBLISHED BY THE COUNCIL OF LLOYD’S)—————————NO CURE – NO PAY—————————On   board the …………….………………………………...……Dated   …….……………………………….+ See Note 1Above     + See Note 2Above       + See Note 3Above                                 + See Note 4Above    15.1.08 3.12.24 13.10.2612.4.50 10.6.53 20.12.6723.2.72 21.5.80 5.9.90  IT IS HEREBY AGREED between   Captain ………………………………. for and on behalf of the Owners of the   “…………………………………….” her cargo freight bunkers stores and any other property   thereon (hereinafter collectively called “the Owners”) and ……………………………………for   and on behalf of ……………………………………. (hereinafter called “the Contractor”) that:   - 1.(a)The Contractor shall use his best   endeavours:-   (i)to   salve the"   .......................................................................   "and/or her cargo freight bunkers stores and any other property thereon   and take them to ............................................ or to such   other place as may hereafter be agreed either place to be deemed a place of   safety or if no such place is named or agreed to a place of safety and  (ii)while   performing the salvage services to prevent or minimize damage to the   environment.  (b)Subject   to clause 2 incorporating Convention Article 14 the services shall be   rendered and accepted as salvage services upon the principle of "no   cure- no pay."  (c)The   Contractor's remuneration shall be fixed by Arbitration in London in the   manner hereinafter prescribed and any other difference arising out of this   Agreement or the operations thereunder shall be referred to Arbitration in   the same way.  (d)In   the event of the services referred to in this Agreement or any part of such   services having been already rendered at the date of this Agreement by the   Contractor to the said vessel and/or her cargo freight bunkers stores and any   other property thereon the provisions of this Agreement shall apply to such services.  (e)The   security to be provided to the Council of Lloyd's (hereinafter called   "the Council") the Salved Value(s)    the Award  and/or any Interim  Award(s)    and/or any Award  on Appeal  shall be    in ........................................... currency  (f)If   clause l(e) is not completed then the security to be provided and the Salved   Value(s) the Award and/or Interim Award(s) and/or Award on Appeal shall be in   Pounds Sterling.  (g)This   Agreement and Arbitration thereunder shall except as otherwise expressly   provided be govern ed by the law of England, including the English law of   salvage. PROVISIONS AS TO   THE SERVICES2.  Articles 1(a) to (e), 8, 13.1, 13.2 first   sentence, 13.3 and 14 of the International Convention on Salvage 1989 ("the   Convention Articles") set out hereafter are hereby incorporated into   this Agreement. The terms "Contractor" and "services" I   "salvage services" in this Agreement shall have the same meanings   as the terms "salvor(s)" and "salvage operation (s)" in   the Convention Articles. 3.  The Owners their Servants and Agents shall   co-operate fully with the Contractor in and about the salvage including   obtaining entry to the place named or the place of safety as defined in   clause 1. The Contractor may make reasonable use of the vessel's machinery   gear equipment anchors chains stores and other appurtenances during and for   the purpose of the salvage services free of expense but shall not   unnecessarily damage abandon or sacrifice the same or any property the   subject of this Agreement. PROVISIONS AS TO SECURITY4.  (a)   The   Contractor shall immediately after the termination of the services or sooner   notify the Council and where practicable the Owners of the amount for which   he demands security (inclusive of costs expenses and interest) from each of   the respective Owners. (b)   Where   the exception to the principle of "no cure - no pay" under   Convention Article 14 becomes likely to be applicable the owners of the   vessel shall on the demand of the Contractor provide security for the   Contractor's special  compensation.  (c)   The amount of any such security shall be   reasonable in the light of the knowledge available to the Contractor at the   time when the demand is made. Unless otherwise agreed such security shall be   provided (i) to the Council (ii) in a form approved by the Council and (iii)   by persons firms or corporations either acceptable to the Contractor or   resident in the United Kingdom and acceptable to the Council. The Council   shall not be responsible for the sufficiency (whether in amount or otherwise)   of any security which shall be provided nor for the default or insolvency of   any person firm or corporation providing the same. (d)   The owners of the vessel their Servants and   Agents shall use their best endeavours to ensure that the cargo owners   provide their proportion of security before the cargo is released. 5.     (a)   Until security has been provided as   aforesaid the Contractor shall have a maritime lien on the property salved   for his remuneration. The property salved shall not without the consent in   writing of the Contractor (which shall not be unreasonably withheld) be   removed from the place to which it has been taken by the Contractor under   clause l(a).  (b)The Contractor shall not arrest or   detain the property salved unless:-   (i)security is not provided within 14 days   (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or other days observed as general   holidays at Lloyd's) after the date of the termination of the  services or  (ii)he has reason to believe that the   removal of the property salved is contemplated contrary to clause 5(a) or  (iii)any attempt is made to remove the   property salved contrary to clause 5(a).(c)   The Arbitrator appointed under clause 6 or   the Appeal Arbitrator(s) appointed under clause 11(d) shall have power in   their absolute discretion to include in the amount awarded to the Contractor   the whole or part of any expenses reasonably    incurred by the Contractor in:-   (i)ascertaining demanding and obtaining the   amount of security reasonably required in accordance with clause 4  (ii)enforcing and/or protecting by insurance   or otherwise or taking reasonable steps to enforce and/or protect his lien. PROVISIONS AS TO ARBITRATION6.     (a)  Where security is provided   to the Council in whole or in part the Council shall appoint an Arbitrator in   respect of the property  covered  by    such security.(b)  Whether security has been provided or not   the Council shall appoint an Arbitrator upon receipt of a written request   made by letter telex facsimile or in any other permanent form provided that   any party requesting such appointment shall if required by the Council   undertake to pay the reasonable fees and expenses of the Council and/ or any   Arbitrator or Appeal Arbitrator(s).(c)  Where an Arbitrator has been appointed and   the parties do not proceed to arbitration the Council may recover any fees   costs and/or expenses which are outstanding and thereupon terminate the appointment   of such Arbitrator. 7.   The Contractor's remuneration shall be   fixed by the Arbitrator appointed under clause 6. Such remuneration shall not   be diminished by reason of the exception to the principle of 'no cure- no   pay' under Convention Article 14. REPRESENTATION8.   Any party to this Agreement who wishes to   be heard or to adduce evidence shall nominate a person in the United Kingdom   to represent him failing which the Arbitrator or Appeal Arbitrator(s) may   proceed as if such party had renounced his right to be heard or adduce   evidence.  CONDUCT OFTHE ARBITRATION9.(a)  The Arbitrator shall have power to:-   (i)admit   such oral or documentary evidence or information as he may think fit  (ii)conduct   the Arbitration in such  manner in all   respects as he may think fit subject to such proceduralrules   as the Council may approve  (iii)condemn   the Contractor in his absolute discretion in the whole or part of the expense   of providingexcessive   security and deduct the amount in which the Contractor is so condemned from   the salvage remuneration  and/or   special compensation  (iv)make Interim Award(s) on such terms as may   be fair and just  (v)make such orders as to costs fees and   expenses including those of the Council charged under clauses 9(b) and 12(b)   as may be fair and just.  (b)    The Arbitrator and the Council may charge reasonable fees and expenses   for their services whether the Arbitration proceeds to a hearing or not and   all such fees and expenses shall be treated as part of the costs of the   Arbitration.  (c)    Any Award shall (subject to Appeal as provided in this Agreement) be   final and binding on all the parties concerned whether they were represented   at the Arbitration or not. INTEREST10.    Interest at rates per annum to be fixed by the Arbitrator shall   (subject to Appeal as provided in this Agreement)be payable on any sum awarded taking   into account any sums already paid:-   (i)from the date of termination of the   services unless the Arbitrator shall in his absolute discretion otherwise   decide until the date of publication by the Council of the Award and/or   Interim Award(s) and  (ii)from the expiration of 21 days   (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or other days observed as general   holidays at Lloyd's) after the date of publication by the Council of the   Award and/or Interim Award(s) until the date payment is received by the   Contractor or the Council both dates inclusive. PROVISIONS AS TO APPEAL11.    (a)  Notice of Appeal if any   shall be given to the Council within 14 days (exclusive of Saturdays and   Sundays or other days observed as general holidays at Lloyd's) after the date   of the publication by the Council of the Award and/or Interim Award(s). (b)  Notice of Cross-Appeal if any shall be   given to the Council within 14days (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or   other days observed as general holidays at Lloyd's) after notification by the   Council to the parties of any Notice of Appeal. Such notification if sent by   post shall be deemed received on the working day following the day of   posting. (c)  Notice of Appeal or Cross-Appeal shall be   given to the Council by letter telex facsimile or in any other permanent   form. (d)  Upon receipt of Notice of Appeal the   Council shall refer the Appeal to the hearing and determination of the Appeal   Arbitrator(s) selected by it. (e)  If any Notice of Appeal or Cross-Appeal is   withdrawn the Appeal hearing shall nevertheless proceed in respect of such   Notice of Appeal or Cross-Appeal as may remain. (f)  Any Award on Appeal shall be final and   binding on all the parties to that Appeal Arbitration whether they were   represented either at the Arbitration or at the Appeal Arbitration or not. 12.    (a)  The Appeal Arbitrator(s) in   addition to the powers of the Arbitrator under clauses 9(a) and 10 shall have   power to:­  (i)admit the evidence which was before the   Arbitrator together with the Arbitrator's notes and reasons for his Award   and/or Interim Award(s) and any transcript of evidence and such additional   evidence as he or they may think fit  (ii)confirm increase or reduce the sum   awarded by the Arbitrator and to make such order as to the payment of   interest on such sum as he or they may think fit  (iii)confirm revoke or vary any order and/or   Declaratory Award made by the Arbitrator. (b)  The Appeal Arbitrator(s) and the Council   may charge reasonable fees and expenses for their services in connection with   the Appeal Arbitration whether it proceeds to a hearing or not and all such   fees and expenses shall be treated as part of the costs of the Appeal   Arbitration. PROVISIONS AS TO PAYMENT13.    (a)  In case of Arbitration if   no Notice of Appeal be received by the Council in accordance with clause   11(a) the Council shall call upon the party or parties concerned to pay the   amount awarded and in the event of non-payment shall subject to the   Contractor first providing to the Council a satisfactory Undertaking to pay   all the costs thereof realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom to   the Contractor (whose receipt shall be a good discharge to it) the amount   awarded to him together with interest if any. The Contractor shall reimburse   the parties concerned to such extent as the Award is less than any sums paid   on account or  in respect of  Interim Award(s). (b)  If Notice of Appeal be received by the   Council in accordance with clause 11 it shall as soon as the Award on Appeal   has been published by it call upon the party or parties concerned to pay the   amount awarded and in the event of non-payment shall subject to the   Contractor first providing to the Council a satisfactory Undertaking to pay   all the costs thereof realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom to   the Contractor (whose receipt shall be a good dis­ charge to it) the amount   awarded to him together with interest if any. The Contractor shall reimburse   the parties concerned to such extent as the Award on Appeal is less than any   sums paid on account or in respect of the Award or Interim Award(s). (c)  If any sum shall become payable to the   Contractor as remuneration for his services and/or interest and/or costs as   the result of an agreement made between the Contractor and the Owners or any   of them the Council in the event of non-payment shall subject to the   Contractor first providing to the Council a satisfactory Undertaking to pay   all the costs thereof realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom to   the Contractor (whose receipt shall be a good discharge to it) the said sum. (d)  If the Award and/or Interim Award(s) and/or   Award on Appeal provides or provide that the costs of the Arbitration and/or   of the Appeal Arbitration or any part of such costs shall be borne by the   Contractor such costs may be deducted from the amount awarded or agreed   before payment is made to the Contractor unless satisfactory security is   provided by the Contractor for the payment of such costs. (e)  Without prejudice to the provisions of   clause 4(c) the liability of the Council shall be limited in any event to the   amount of security provided to it. GENERAL    PROVISIONS14.    Interest at rates per annum to be fixed by the Arbitrator shall (subject   to Appeal as provided in this Agreement)be payable on any sum awarded taking   into account any sums already paid:- 15.    In considering what sums of money have been expended by the Contractor   in rendering the services and/or in fixing the amount of the Award and/or   Interim Award(s) and/or Award on Appeal the Arbitrator or Appeal   Arbitrator(s) shall to such an extent and in so far as it may be fair and   just in all the circumstances give effect to the consequences of any change   or changes in the relevant rates of exchange which may have occurred between   the date of termination of the services and the date on which the Award   and/or Interim Award(s) and/or Award on Appeal is made. 16.    Any Award notice authority order or other document signed by the Chairman   of Lloyd's or any person authorised by the Council foc the purpose shall be   deemed to have been duly made or given by the Council and shall have the same   force and effect in all respects as if it had been signed by every member of   the Council. 17.    The Contractor may claim salvage and enforce any Award or agreement   made between the Contractor and the Owners against security provided under   clause 4 if any in the name and on behalf of any Sub-Contractors Servants or   Agents including Masters and members of the crews of vessels employed by him   or by any Sub-Contractors in the services provided that he first provides a   reasonably satisfactory indemnity to the Owners against all claims by or   liabilities to the said persons. 18.    When there is no longer any reasonable prospect of a useful result   leading to a salvage reward in accordance with Convention Article 13 the   owners of the vessel shall be entitled to terminate the services of the   Contractor by giving notice to the Contractor in writing. 19.    No person signing this Agreement or any party on whose behalf it is   signed shall at any time or in any manner whatsoever offer provide make give   or promise to provide demand or take any form of inducement for entering into   this Agreement. THE CONVENTION ARTICLES Article 1 Definitions (a)  Salvage operation means any act or activity   undertaken to assist a vessel or any other property in danger in navigable   waters or in any other waters whatsoever(b)  Vessel means any ship or craft, or any structure   capable of navigation(c)  Property means any property not permanently   and intentionally attached to the shoreline and includes freight at risk(d)  Damage to the environment means substantial   physical damage to human health or to marine life or resources in coastal or   inland waters or areas adjacent thereto, caused by pollution, contamination,   fire, explosion or similar major incidents(e)  Payment means any reward, remuneration or   compensation due under this Convention   Article 8 Duties of the Salvor and of the Owner   and Master 1.  The salvor shall owe a duty to the owner of   the vessel or other property in danger: (a)  to carry out the salvage operations with   due care;(b)  in performing the duty specified in subparagraph   (a), to exercise due care to prevent or minimize damage to the environment;(c)  whenever circumstances reasonably require,   to seek assistance from other salvors; and(d)  to accept the intervention of other salvors   when reasonably requested to do so by the owner or master of thevessel or other property in danger;   provided however that the amount of his reward shall not be prejudiced should   it be found that such a request was    unreasonable 2.  The owner and master of the vessel or the   owner of other property in danger shall owe a duty to the salvor:(a)  to co-operate fully with him during the   course of the salvage operations;(b)  in so doing, to exercise due care to   prevent or minimize damage to the environment; and(c)  when the vessel or other property has been   brought to a place of safety, to accept redelivery when reasonably requested   by the salvor to do so Article 13 Criteria for fixing the reward 1.   The reward shall be fixed with a view to   encouraging salvage operations, taking into account the following criteria   without regard to the order in which they are presented below:  (a)he salved value of the vessel and other   property; (b)the skill and efforts of the salvors in   preventing or minimizing damage to the environment; (c)the measure of success obtained by the   salvor; (d)the nature and degree of the danger; (e)the skill and efforts of the salvors in   salving the vessel, other property and life; (f)the time used and expenses and losses   incurred by the salvors; (g)the risk of liability and other risks   run by the salvors or their equipment; (h)the promptness of the services rendered; (i)the availability and use of vessels or   other equipment intended for salvage operations; (j)the state of readiness and efficiency of   the salvor's equipment and the value thereof 2.   Payment of a reward fixed according to   paragraph 1shall be made by all of the vessel and other property interests in   proportion to their respective salved values 3.   The rewards, exclusive of any interest and   recoverable legal costs that may be payable thereon, shall not exceed the   salved value of the vessel and other property Article 14 Special  Compensation 1.   If the salvor has carried out salvage   operations in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatened   damage to the environment and has failed to earn a reward under Article 13 at   least equivalent to the special compensation assessable in accordance with   this Article, he shall be entitled to special compensation from the owner of   that vessel equivalent to his expenses as herein defined 2.     If in the circumstances set out in paragraph 1, the salvor by his   salvage operations has prevented or minimized damage to the environment, the   special compensation payable by the owner to the salvor under paragraph 1may   be increased up to a maximum of 30% of the expenses incurred by the salvor.   However, the Tribunal, if it deems it fair and just to do so and bearing in   mind the relevant criteria set out in Article 13, paragraph 1, may increase   such special compensation further, but in no event shall the total increase   be more than 100% of the expenses incurred by the salvor 3.     Salvor's expenses for the purpose of paragraphs 1 and 2 means the   out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage   operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably   used in the salvage operation, taking into consideration  the criteria set out in Article 13,   paragraph  1(h), (i) and (j) 4.     The total special compensation under this Article shall be paid only   if and to the extent that such    compensation is greater than any reward recoverable by the salvor   under Article 13 5.     If the salvor has been negligent and has thereby failed to prevent or   minimize damage to the environment, he maybe deprived of the whole or part of any   special compensation due under this Article 6.     Nothing in this Article shall affect any right of recourse on the part   of the owner of the vessel For   and on behalf of the Contractor   ……………………………………………………………….(To   be signed either by the Contractor personally or by the Master of the salving   vessel or other person whose name is inserted in line4 of this Agreement.)For   and on behalf of the Owners of property tobe salved.  ……………………………………………………………….(To be   signed by the Master or other person whose name is inserted in line 1 of this   Agreement.) 
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    发布于:2022-02-09 12:05:47
  • 海难救助劳合社救助合同标准格式1980年版 LOF 1980
    勞依茲海難救助契約標準格式 — 1980年版(業經勞依茲委員會批準發行)不成功 無報酬LLOYD'S OPEN FORMStandard Form of Salvage Agreement(Approved and Published by The Committee of Lloyd’sNO CURE - NO PAY台灣 黃裕凱博士編譯 海難救助—1980年勞依茲救助契約On board the  ___________________             Dated 19____________         訂於____________船上   19___年_____月______日IT IS HEREBY AGREED   between Captain ________________for and on behalf of the Owners of   the"_____________ " her cargo freight bunkers and stores and __________for   and on behalf of ________________(hereinafter called "the   Contractor"):-本船長__________ 代表__________翰之船舶所有人、貨物、運費、燃油及物料與___________________代表_________(以下稱為“締約救助人”)謹協議如下:1.(a) The Contractor agrees   to use his best endeavours to salve the and/or her cargo bunkers and stores   and take them to or other place to be hereafter agreed or if no place is   named or agreed to a place of safety. The Contractor further agrees to use   his best endeavours to prevent the escape of oil from the vessel while   performing the services of salving the subject vessel and/or her cargo bunkers   and stores The services shall be rendered and acceded as salvage services   upon the principle of "no cure-no pay" except that where the   property being salved is the tanker laden or partly laden with a cargo of oil   and without negligence on the part of the Contractor and/or his Servants and/or   Agents(l) the services are not successful or (2) are only partially   successful or (3) the Contractor is prevented from completing the services   the Contractor shall nevertheless be awarded solely against the Owners of   such tanker his reasonably incurred expenses and an increment not exceeding   15 per cent of such expenses but only if and to the extent that such expenses   together with the increment are greeter than any amount otherwise recoverable   under this Agreement. Within the meaning of the said exception to the   principle of "no cure- no pay" expenses shall in addition to actual   out 01 pocket expenses include a fair rate for all tugs craft personnel and   other equipment used by the Contractor in the services and oil shall mean   crude oil fuel oil heavy diesel oil and lubricating oil1.(a) 締約救助人應飛其最大努力救助___________輪及/或其貨物、運費、燃油及物料,將其送往_________或稍後協議無論是否視為安全處所之地點,或如無列名或協議地點時,則是為安全處所之地點。締約救助人並同意於救助本契約船舶及或其上貨載、物料時,會盡其最大努力防止油料外洩。應本“不成功-無報酬”之救助服務原則提供並接受本服務,然被救助之財產為載油油輪或部分載運貨油,且締約救助人及其受雇人及/或代理人對下列事項無過失之情況下:(1)救助服務並未成功,或(2)僅部分成功,或(3)締約救助人受陰無法完成救助服務,則就締約救助人無論如果均可單鉵向該油輪之有人請求其合理發生之費用及不超過該費用百分之十五之增額,惟該費用及增額僅限於高於可依本求回復之數上之數額。於前述「不成功   無報酬」原則之例外規定中,應另外加上締約救助於救助工作之實支費用,包括其所使用之所有拖船、艇具、人員及其他機具之合理費率。而油應指原油、烯油、重柴油及潤滑油。(b) The Contractor remuneration shill be   fixed by arbitration in London in the manner herein prescribed and any other   difference arising out of this Agreement or the operations thereunder shall   be referred to arbitration in the same way. In the event of the services   referred to in the Agreement or any part of such service having been already   rendered at the date of the Agreement by the Contractor to the said vessel   and/or her cargo bunkers and stores the provisions of this Agreement shall   apply to such services(b)締約救助人之報酬應以下述所規定之方式,經由倫敦仲裁確定之,本契約或相關作業所生之任何其他爭議,應以相同方法提交仲裁。於本契約簽訂日期之前,締約救助人已經對前述船舶及其貨物、運費、燃油、物料及其上任何其他財產提供本契約所述及之服務或該服務任何總價時,本契約規定仍應適用之。(c) It is hereby further agreed that the security to be provided to the   Committee at Lloyd's the Salved Values the Award and/or Interim Award and/or   Award on Appeals the Arbitrator and/or Arbitrators on Appeal shall be in   __________currency. If this Clause is not completed then the security to be   provided and the Salved Values the Award and/or Interim   Award and/or Award on Appeal of the Arbitrator and/or Arbitrator(s) on Appeal   shall be in Pounds Sterling.(c)僅此另再同意擔保金應提供給勞依茲稂員會,獲救價值、仲裁人及或上訴仲裁人所決定之裁定額、及/或任何中間裁定額、及/或上訴仲裁之任何裁定額均應以________貨幣表示之。好好吃本項未訂明,則是應提供之擔保金,獲救價值、仲裁人及或上訴仲裁人所決定之裁定額、及/或任何中間裁定額、及或上訴仲裁之任何裁定額應以英鎊表示之。(d)This Agreement shall be governed by and   arbitration thereunder shall be in accordance with English law.(d)本契約及下列所規定之仲裁應受英國法規範。 2. The Owners their Servants and Agents shall co-operate fullywith the Contractor in and about the salvage including obtaining entry   to the place named in Clause 1 of this Agreement or such other place as may   be agreed or if applicable the place of safety to which the salved property   is taken. The Owners shall promptly accept redelivery of the salved property at   such place. The Contractor may make reasonable use of the vessels machinery gear   equipment anchors chains stores and other appurtenances during and for the purpose   of the operations free of expense but shall not unnecessarily damage abandon   or sacrifice the same or any property the subject of this Agreement. 2.所有權人、其受雇人及代理人對於及對有關之救助,包括為進入本契約第1條所列名地點或或其他經協議或應適用之安全地點,應與締約救助人充份合作。所有人於該地點應立即受領獲救財產。締約救助人得於救助服務期間及為救助目的,合理且無償地使用船舶之機器、索具、設備、錨、錨鏈、物料及其他屬具,但不能對這些物品或本契約標的之其他財產有不必要的毀損、投棄或犧牲。 3. The Master or other person signing this Agreement on behalf of the   property to be salved is not authorised to make or give and the Contractor   shall not demand or take any payment draft or order as inducement to or   remuneration for entering into this Agreement. 3.代表被獲救財產簽署簽契約之船長或其他人無權提出或給與,且締約救助人亦不應要求或接受任何付款、票據或票券,以促成本契約之簽訂或作為本契約之報酬。PROVISIONS AS TO SECURITY擔保條款4. The Contractor shall immediately after the termination of the services   or sooner in appropriate cases notify the Committee of Lloyd's and where   practicable the Owners of the amount for which he requires security (inclusive   of costs expenses and interest). Unless otherwise agreed by the parties such   security shall be given to the Committee of Lloyd's and security so given shall   be in a form approved by the Committee and shall be given by persons firms or   corporations resident in the United Kingdom either satisfactory to the   Committee of Lloyd's or agreed by the Contractor. The Committee of Lloyd's   shall not be responsible for the sufficiency (whether in amount or otherwise)   of any security which shall be given nor for the default or insolvency of any   person firm or corporation giving the same.4.於服務終止後,締約救助人應將其所需每一所有權人救助擔保之數額(包括成本、費用及利息)立即或儘速通知委員會及所有權人。除另有協議外,該擔保應提供給勞依茲委員會,以委員會所同意之格式及由委員會或締約救助人可設籍於英國而為委員會所接受之人、商號或公司提供之。該任何人、商號或公司之疏失或破產而就其本應提供之任何擔保之不足額(無論是否為數量上或其他),委員會無須負責。 5. Pending the completion of the security as aforesaid the Contractor   shall have a maritime lien on the property salved for his remuneration. Where   the aforementioned exception to the principle of "no cure - no pay"   becomes likely to be applicable the Owners of the vessel shall on demand of   the Contractor provide security for the Contractor's remuneration under the aforementioned   exception in accordance with Clause 4 hereof. The salved property shall not   without the consent in writing of the Contractor be removed from the place   (within the terms of Clause 1) to which the property is taken by the   Contractor on the completion of the salvage services until security has been   given as aforesaid. The Owners of the vessel their Servants and Agents shall   use their best endeavours to ensure that the Cargo Owners provide security in   accordance with the provisions of Clause 4 of this Agreement before the cargo   is released. The Contractor agrees not to arrest or detain the property   salved unless (a) the security be not given within 14 days (exclusive of   Saturdays and Sundays or other days observed as general holidays at Lloyd's) after   the date of the termination of the services(the Committee of Lloyd's not   being responsible for the failure of the parties concerned to provide the   required security within the said 14 days) or (b) the Contractor has reason   to believe that the removal of the property is contemplated contrary to the   above agreement. In the event of security not being provided or in the event   of (1) any attempt being made to remove the property salved contrary to this   agreement or (2) the Contractor having reasonable grounds to suppose that   such an attempt will be made the Contractor may take steps to enforce his aforesaid   lien. The Arbitrator appointed under Clause 6 or the person(s) appointed   under Clause 13 hereof shall have power in their absolute discretion to   include in the amount awarded to the Contractor the whole or such part of the   expense incurred by the Contractor in enforcing or protecting by insurance or   otherwise or in taking reasonable steps to enforce or protect his lien as   they shall think fit. 5.於擔保依前柱塞成提供前之期間,締約救助人就其報酬,對於獲救之財產享有海事優先權。如可能適脾前述「不成功   無效果」例外規定時,船舶所有人應依據締約救助人之要求,依本契約第4條之例外規定針對締約救助人報酬為擔保之提供。於依前述規定提供擔保前,未經締約救助人之書面同意,獲救之財產不應從締約求助人送達之地點移往其他地點(依第1條)。船舶所有人、其受雇人及代理人應盡最大努力,使貨物所有人於貨物放行前能依據本契約第4條規定提供擔保。締約救助不得假損耗押或留置獲救財產,除非(a)擔保未於服務終止日後14天內(不包括周六、周日或其他勞依茲其他例假日)擔出(勞依茲委員會對有關當事人於前述14天內未提供所要求擔保者,不負責任),或(b)締約救助人有理由相信,移動財產勢將違反本契約規定。於未提供擔保或於下列情況下:(1)企圖移動獲救財產因而違反本契約或(2)締約求助人合理理由認為該移動財產之企圖,即可采取執行優先權之手段。第6條所指定之仲裁人或第13條所指定之上訴仲裁人具絕對之裁量權力,對締約救助人為行使其優先權或經由保險或其他方式或采取強製實行及或防護之全部或一部,內含在締約救助人之報酬金額之內。PROVISIONS AS TO ARBITRATION仲裁條款6.(a) Where security within the provisions of this Agreement is given to the   Committee of Lloyd's in whole or in part the said Committee shall appoint an   Arbitrator in respect of the interests covered by such security6.(a) 如本契約所規定之擔保已經全部或一部提供給勞依茲委員會,該   委員會即應就該擔保所涵蓋之利益為仲裁人之指派。(b)Whether security has been given or not the Committee of Lloyd's shall   appoint an Arbitrator upon receipt of a written or telex or telegraphic   notice of a claim for arbitration from any of the parties entitled or authorized   to make such a claim(b)無論擔保是否已經提供,勞依茲委員會接獲有權或經授權提出求償之任何當事人申請仲裁之書信、電報、電傳通知後,即應指派一仲裁人。 7. Where an Arbitrator has been appointed by the Committee of Lloyd's   and the parties do not wish to proceed to arbitration the parties shall   jointly notify the said Committee in writing or by telex or by telegram and   the said Committee may thereupon terminate the appointment of such Arbitrator   as they may have appointed in accordance with Clause 6 of this Agreement. 7.勞依茲委員會已為仲裁人之指定,而當事人卻無意續行仲裁者,所有當事人應共同以書面,或以電傳或電報方式通知該委員會,該委員會得因此終止依本契約第6條仲裁人之指派。 8. Any of the following parties may make a claim for arbitration viz.:   - (1) The Owners of the ship. (2) The Owners of the cargo or any part   thereof. (3) The Owners of any freight separately at risk or any part   thereof. (4) The Contractor. (5) The Owners of the bunkers and/or stores. (6)   Any other person who is a party to this Agreement. 8.下列任一當事人均可請由交付仲裁:(1)船舶所有人(2)貨物或其任何部分之所有人(3)個別承擔風險之運其任何部分之所有人(4)締約救助人(5)烯油及或物料之所有人(6)身為本協議當事人之一之任何其他人。 9. If the parties to any such Arbitration or any of them desire to be   heard or to adduce evidence at the Arbitration they shall give notice to that   effect to the Committee of Lloyd's and shall respectively nominate a person   in the United Kingdom to represent them for all the purposes of the   Arbitration and failing such notice and nomination being given the Arbitrator   or Arbitrates on Appeal may proceed as if the parties failing to give the   same had renounced their right to be heard or adduce evidence. 9.任何該仲裁之當事人或其中一方希望於仲裁庭中聽審或擔出證據者,應當通知勞依茲委員會並於各自委任一居住於英國之人於仲裁庭中代表該人,未為是項通知及委任,仲裁人或上訴仲裁人即應以該當事人已放棄聽審或提出證據之權利進行其程序。 10. The remuneration for the services within the meaning of this Agreement   shall be fixed by an Arbitrator to be appointed by the Committee of Lloyd's   and he shall have power to make an Interim Award ordering such payment on   account as may seem fair and just and on such terms as may be fair and just. 10.本契約之義之服務報酬應由勞依茲委員會所指派之仲裁決定之,且該仲裁人有權做出中間裁決,以公平合理條件為公平合理之預付款項。CONDUCT OF THE ARBITRATION仲裁作為11. The Arbitrator shall have power to obtain call for receive and act   upon any such oral or documentary evidence or information (whether the same   be strictly admissible as evidence or not) as he may think fit and to conduct   the Arbitration in such manner in all respects as he may think fit and shall   if in his opinion the amount of the security demanded is excessive have power   in his absolute discretion to condemn  the   Contractor in the whole or part of the expense of providing such security and   to deduct the amount in which the Contractor is so condemned from the salvage   remuneration. Unless the Arbitrator shall otherwise direct the parties shall   be at liberty to adduce expert evidence at the Arbitration. Any Award of the   Arbitrator shall (subject to appeal as provided in this Agreement) be final   and binding on all the parties concerned. The Arbitrator and the Committee of   Lloyd's may charge reasonable fees and expenses for their services in   connection with the Arbitration whether it proceeds to a hearing or not and   all such fees and expenses shall be treated as part of the costs of the   Arbitration. Save as aforesaid the statutory provisions as to Arbitration for   the time being in force in England shall apply.11.仲裁人有權取得、索取、收受並采用其認為適當之口頭或書面之證據或資料(不論該證據或資料可否嚴格地被認定為證據),並以,其認為適當之方式,對任何事項為仲裁進行。且如以其意見認為要求提供之擔保金額過於龐大時,在權決定將白日做夢該擔保之全部或一部之費用,要求締約救助人負擔並自救助報酬中予以扣減。除仲裁人另有特別指示,當事人得於仲裁中自由提供專家證據。任何裁定(受限於本契約之上訴規定)應予終結並拘束所有相關當事人。無論仲裁審理與否,仲裁人及勞依茲委員會就其服務,得要求合理之酬金及費用,且該所有的酬金及費用應視為仲裁成本之一部分。除前述條款外,應適用英國現行有效之仲裁相關法規。 12. Interest at a rate per annum to be fixed by the Arbitrator from the   expiration of 21 days (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or other days   observed as general holidays at Lloyd's) after the date of publication of the   Award and/or Interim Award by the Committee of Lloyd's until the date payment   is received by the Committee of Lloyd's both dates inclusive shall (subject   to appeal as provided in this Agreement) be payable upon any sum awarded   after deduction of any sums paid on account. 12.有關裁定金額扣減預付款後之差額,應自勞依茲委員會發布該裁定及或中間裁定之日起第21天(不包括周六及周日或勞依茲其他例假日)屆滿起,至勞依茲委員會收到金額之日止(首尾日計入),依仲裁人所決定之年利率加付利息(應適用本契約所規定之上訴規定)。PROVISIONS AS TO APPEAL上訴條款13. Any of the persons named under Clause 8 may appeal from the Award   but not without leave of the Arbitrator(s) on Appeal from an Interim Award   made pursuant to the provisions of Clause 10 hereof by giving written or   telegraphic or telex Notice of Appeal to the Committee of Lloyd's within 14   days (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or other days observed as general holidays   at Lloyd's) after the date of the publication by the Committee of Lloyd's of   the Award and may (without prejudice to their right of appeal under the first   part of this Clause) within 14 days (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or   other days observed as general holidays at Lloyd's) after receipt by them from   the Commit tee of Lloyd's of notice of such appeal (such notice if sent by   post to be deemed to be received on the day following that on which the said   notice was posted) give written or telegraphic or telex Notice of   Cross-Appeal to the Committee of Lloyd's. As soon as practicable alter receipt   of such notice or notices the Committee of Lloyd's shall refer the Appeal to   the hearing and determination of a person or persons selected by it In the   event of an Appellant or Cross-Appellant withdrawing his Notice of Appeal or   Cross-Appeal the hearing shall nevertheless proceed in respect of such Notice   of Appeal or Cross-Appeal as may remain. Any Award on Appeal shall be anal   and binding on all the parties concemed whether such parties were   representedor not at either the Arbitration or at the Arbitration on Appeal.13.第8條所列名之任何人,得於勞依茲委員會發布仲裁判斷之日後14日內(不包括周六、周日或其他勞依茲例假日),以書面,電報或電傳向勞依茲委員會為上訴之通知,針對仲裁判斷提出上訴,但非經上訴仲裁人允許,不得針對本契約第10條規定所做出之中間裁定提起上訴。其另可(於不損及其依所本條前述規定提起上訴之權利)於收到勞依茲委員有關上訴通知(交付郵局寄送之通知,以寄送日之次日視為收到日)後14日內(不包括周六、周日或其他勞依茲例假日),以書面、電報或電傳向勞依茲妝員會為交互上訴之通知。勞依茲委員於收到交互上訴通知後,應儘速地將該上訴交給委員會所指派之一或多仲裁人審理並做出裁決。如任何上訴或交互上訴被撤回,有關該上訴或交互上訴通知之上訴審理仍應維持般地繼續進行。任何上訴之裁定應予終結並拘束所有上訴仲裁之相關當事人,而無論其是否派有代表出席仲裁或上訴仲裁。CONDUCT OF THE APPEAL上訴仲裁作為14. No evidence other than the documents put in on the Arbitration and   the Arbitrator's notes of the proceedings and oral evidence if any at the   Arbitration and the Arbitrator's Reasons for his Award and Interim Award if   any and the transcript if any of any evidence given at the Arbitration shall   be used on used on the Appeal unless the Arbitrates on the Appeal shall in   his or their discretion call for or allow other evidence. The Arbitrator(s)   on Appeal may conduct the Arbitration on Appeal in such manner in all   respects as he or they may think fit and may act upon any such evidence or   information (whether the same be strictly admissible as evidence or not) as   he or they may think ht and may maintain increase or reduce the sum awarded   by the Arbitrator with the like power as is conferred by Clause 11 on the   Arbitrator to condemn the Contractor in the whole or part of the expense of   providing security and to deduct the amount disallowed from the salvage   remuneration. And he or they shall also make such order as he or they shall   think ht as to the payment of interest on the sum awarded to the Contractor.The Arbitrator(s) on the Appeal may direct in what manner the costs of   the Arbitration and of the Arbitration on Appeal shall be borne and paid and   he or they and the Committee of Lloyd's may charge reasonable fees and   expenses for their services inconnection with the Arbitration on Appeal whether it proceeds to a   hearing or not and all such fees and expenses shall be treated as part of the   costs of the Arbitration on Appeal. Save as aforesaid the statutory provisions   as to Arbitration for the time being in force in England shall apply.14.除於仲裁中所提出之文件,及仲裁人於程序進行中紀錄及仲裁中之口頭證詞(如有),仲裁人於其仲裁判斷及中間裁定(如有)之理由,及仲裁中所提交之任何證據之副本(如有)外,其他證據抱歉不得使用於上訴仲裁中,除非上訴仲裁人以其意見要求或準許該其他證據。上訴仲裁人在任何方面得以其認為適當之方式為上訴仲裁之進行。其可接受其認為適當之任何證據或資料(不論該證據或資料可否嚴格地被認定為證據),且可維持或增減仲裁人所裁定之金額,並具有第11條所賦予仲裁人之同樣權力,將所提供擔保額之全部或一部費用,命締約救助人承擔,並從救助報酬中予以扣減。上訴仲裁人亦得針對應支付給締約救助裁定金額之利息,為其認為適當之裁定。上訴仲裁人亦可裁定仲裁及上訴仲裁之費用負擔及支付之方式,且無論上訴仲裁是否開庭審理,上訴仲裁人及勞依茲委員就其上訴服務,得要求合理之酬金及費用,且該所有費用應視為仲裁成本之一部分。除前述條款外,應適用英國兩千有效之仲裁相關法規。PROVISIONS AS TO PAYMENT支付條款1.(a) In case of   Arbitration if no Notice of Appeal be received by the Committee of Lloyd's   within 14 days (exclusive of Saturdays and Sundays or other days observed as   general holidays at Lloyd's) after the date of the publication by the Committee   of the Award and/or Interim Award the Committee shall call upon the party or   parties concerned to pay the amount awarded and in the event of non-payment shall   realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom to the Contractor (whose receipt   shall be a good discharge to it) the amount awarded to him together with   interest as hereinbefore provided but the Contractor shall reimburse the parties   concerned to such extent as the final Award is less than the Interim Award.1.(a) 於仲裁情況下,如勞依茲委員會未於其公布裁定或中間裁定之日後14天內(不包括周六及周日或其他勞依茲例假日)收到上訴通知者,即可要求一方或多方之支付裁定之數額。如未支付,則是依締約救助人先前提供給委員會之足額保證支付該項已知之所有成本或強製實行訁擔保並將裁定之數額及其利息(如有)支付給締約救助人(其收取得適當免除其責任者)。締約救助人就裁定少於已暫付之任何數額或有關中間裁定額之範圍,應補償相關利害關係人。(b)If Notice of Appeal be received by the   Committee of Lloyd's in accordance with the provisions of Clause 13 hereof it   shall as soon as but not until the Award on Appeal has been published by it   call upon the party or parties concerned to pay the amount awarded and in the   event of non-payment shall realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom   to the Contractor (whose receipt shall be a good discharge to it) the amount   awarded to him together with interest if any in such manner as shall comply   with the provisions of the Award on Appeal.(b)如勞依茲委員會接獲依第13條規定之上訴通知,於上訴仲裁裁定發布後應儘速要求或數當事人支付裁定之數額,如未支付,則是依締約救助人先前提供給委員會之足額保證支付該項已知之所有成本或強製實行該擔保並將裁定之數額及其利息(如有)支付給締約救助人(其收取得適當免除其責任者)。(c)If the Award and/or Interim Award and/or Award   on Appeal provides or provide that the costs of the Arbitration and/or of the   Arbitration on Appeal or any part of such costs shall be borne by the   Contractor such costs may be deducted from the amount awarded before payment   is made to the Contractor by the Committee of Lloyd's unless satisfactory security   is provided by the Contractor for the payment of such costs.(c)如裁定及或中間裁定及或上訴裁定規定仲裁及或上訴仲裁之費用或該費用之任何部分應由締約救助人負擔時,除非締約救助人就該費用之支付提出足額擔保,否則該費用應於該款項支付給締約救助人前,從裁定或協議之數額中扣除。(d)If any sum shall become payable to the   Contractor as remuneration for his services and/or interest and/or costs as the   result of an agreement made between the Contractor and the parties interested   in the property salved or any of them the Committee of Lloyd's in the event   of non-payment shall realize or enforce the security and pay therefrom to the   Contractor (whose receipt shall be a good discharge to it) the amount agreed   upon between the parties.(d)對締約救助人服務之報酬及或利息及或費用,因締約救助人及所有權人或其間任何人所作之協議而應支付締約救助人任何數額時,如未支付,勞依茲委員會即會實現或強製執行該擔保並將裁定之數額及其利息(如有)支付給締約救助人(其收取得適當免除其責任者。(e)Without prejudice to the   provisions of Clause 4 hereof the liability of the Committee of Lloyd's shall   be limited in any event to the amount of security held by it.(e)不損及第4條之規定,勞依茲委員會之責任,於任何情況下,應受限於提供給委員會之擔保數額。GENERAL PROVISIONS一般規定16. Notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained should the operations   be only partially successful without any negligence or want of ordinary skill   and care on the part of the Contractor his Servants or Agents and any portion   of the vessel her appurtenances bunkers stores and cargo be salved by the Contractor   he shall be entitled to reasonable remuneration and such reasonable   remuneration shall be axed in case of difference by Arbitration in manner   hereinbefore prescribed. 16.不論前述規定為何,如締約救助人、其受雇人或代理人並無過失或無欠缺通常技術及註意,救助服務僅獲得部分成功,且締約救助人救起船舶、船上設備、燃油、物料或者船上貨物之任何部分,締約救助人有權得到合理報酬,如有爭議,該合理報酬應依照前述仲裁方式決定之。 l7. The Master or other person signing this   Agreement on behalf of the property to be salved enters into this Agreement   as Agent for the vessel her cargo freight bunkers and stores and the respective   owners thereof and binds each (but not the one for the other or himself   personally) to the due performance thereof. 17.代表被獲救財產議定本契約並簽署本契約之船長期或其他人視為船舶、其貨物、運費、烯油、物料及其上其他財產及其各自所有權人之代表人,並拘束每一人(非一人為他人或身身)而適當執行其職責。 18. In considering what sums of money have been expended by the   Contractor in rendering the services and/or in fixing the amount of the Award   and/or Interim Award and/or Award on Appeal the Arbitrator or Arbitrator(s)   on Appeal shall to such an extent and in so far as it may be fair and just in   all the circumstances give effect to the consequences of any change or changes   in the value of money or rates of exchange which may have occurred between   the completion of the services and the date on which the Award and/or Interim   Award and/or Award on Appeal is made. 18.於考量締約救助人提供服務所耗費之金錢數額,及或裁定及或中間裁定及或上訴裁定之數額時,仲裁人或上訴仲裁人應就所有情況均為公平合理之程度及範圍內,對服務終止日與作出裁定及或中間裁定及或上訴裁定之日間可能發生之有關多錢價值或兌換匯率之任何變動或數變動之影響進行調整。 19. Any Award notice authority order or other document signed by the   Chairman of Lloyd's or any person authorised by the Committee of Lloyd's for   the purpose shall be deemed to have been duly made or given by the Committee   of Lloyd's and shall have the same force and effect in all respects as if it   had been signed by every member of the Committee of Lloyd's. 19.任何裁定、通知、授權、要求或勞依茲主席或任何經委員會授權之人為此目的所簽署之其他文件,均應視為委員會已經為適當製作或提出,且在任何方面具有如經委員會任一委員簽署般之同樣強製力及效力。 20. The Contractor may claim salvage and enforce any Award or agreement   made between the Contractor and the parties interested in the property salved   against security provided under this Agreement if any in the name and on   behalf of any Sub-Contractors Servants or Agents including Masters and members   of the Crews of vessels employed by him in the services rendered hereunder   provided that he first indemnities and holds harmless the Owners of the   property salved against all claims by or liabilities incurred to the said   persons. Any such indemnity shall be provided in a form satisfactory to such Owners 20.締約救助人得代表任何次締約救助人、其或他們的受雇人或代理人,包括其或任何次締約救助人就此服務所雇用之船長及船舶之船員,依任何裁定或締約救助人與獲救財產利害關係人間之協議所提供之擔保為強製執行,然就獲救財產所有權對於訁人等所生之所有求償及責任,締約救助人應先予以補償並使之不受損害。該補償應以氖權人滿意之方式提供之。 2l. The Contractor shall be entitled to limit any liability to the Owners   of the subject vessel and/or her cargo bunkers and stores which he and/or his   Servants and/or Agents may incur in and about the services in the manner and   to the extent provided by English law and as if the provisions of the   Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 were part of the   law of England. 21.締約救助人、及/或其受雇人、及或代理人因救助服務而須對被施救之船舶及/或船上貨物、燃油及物料之所有權人負責時,其可依照作為英國法律一部分之1976年海事求償責任限製公約所規定之方式及額度主張責任限製。  For and on behalf ofthe Contractor                                                   (To be signed either by the Contractor personally or by the Master of   the salving vessel or other person whose name is inserted in line 3 ofthis   Agreement)  代表締約救助人                                                   (應由締約人本人或施救船舶之船列名於本契約第三行之其他人簽署之。)  For and on behalf of the Owners of property to   be salved.                                                   (To be signed by the Master or other person   whose name is inserted in line 1 of this Agreement.)  代表獲求財產之所有權人                                                   (應由締約人第一行所列名之船長或其他人簽署之)   台灣 黃裕凱博士編譯    海難救助—1980年勞依茲救助契約 
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