航运英语缩写- 详细解释翻译

航运英语缩写- 详细解释翻译

2022-08-06 12:45:41

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航运术语 - 航运在线 (sol.com.cn) 


aaaaalways afloat  
asfas following
a/c acctaccount=charterer
acolafter completion of loading 
afmtafter fixing main terms固定主要条款之后
air draft 水上高度
a/oand or
a/padditional premium附加保险费
apson arrival pilot station到达引航站
a/rall risks
a/saccount sale销货账
a/safter sight远期付款
aaalways afloat永远漂浮
aa awiwlalways afloat always aitnin institute warranty limits
aaragainst all risks针对所有风险
absamerican bureau of shipping美国船级社
accdgaccording to根据
acctaccounter chrs
acolafter completion of loading
acolafter completion of loading装货结束后
addcomaddress commission回扣佣金
afmtafter fixing main terms
afmtafter fixing main terms固定主要条款之后
afsparrival first sea pilot
ag(=pg)arabian gulf (persian gulf)
agwall goes well一切顺利
agw/wpall going well/whether permit   
ahlaustralian holk ladder
ahpsarrival harbour pilot station
ahpsarrival  harbour pilot station到达港口引航站
aimsamerican institute of merchant shipping美国商船航运学会
all flgs abt/all dtls abt   
amelogamerica log   
amwelsh c/p ore-americanized welsh coal charter   
aobas on board   
aohafter office hour
aohafter office hours工作时间外
apadditional premium   
apall purpose   
apadditional premium附加保险费
apsarr pilot station     
apsarrival pilot station
apsarrival pilot station到达引航站
araamsterdam/rotterdam/antwerp rge
arby/a 1974 arbitration york antwerp rule   
as explained on tel   
asapas soon as possible尽可能快地
asbaassociation of shipbrokers and agents, inc。(美国)船舶经济人和代理人协会
asfas follows如下


asroblafter signing releasing original b/l
ataactual time of arrival实际到达时间
atcactual time used to count
atdactual time of departure实际开航时间
atdnany time day or night   
atdnsat days and nights sunday白天,晚上,星期日的任何时间
atdnshincany time day or night sunday loliday include
atdnshincany time, day, night, sundays and holidays included任何时间,白天,夜间,星期日和节假日
atsall time saved所有节省时间
atsbeall time saved both ends所有两港节省时间
atsdoall time saved discharging only所有卸货港节省时间
atsloall time saved loading only所有装货港节省时间
awtsall wording time saved所有节省的工作时间
awtsbeall working time saved both ends所有两港节省的工作时间
awtsdoall working time saved discharging only所有卸货港节省的工作时间
awtsloall working time saved loading only所有装货港节省的工作时间
b/lbill of lading提单
b/obuyers option
b/sbill of sale卖契
babuenos aires
babinot above but including
back trading
banking days
barkless logs
bbballasting bonus
bbballast bonus空航奖金(空放补贴)
bbbbefore breaking bulk卸货前
b-bondbid bond
bcbritish columbia/bulk carrier
bccabulk chrts consultants australia


bdbiz dept
bdsbanking days
bebendboth ends
bebends both end   
bendsboth ends两端(装货和卸货港)




bhpbulk harmless
bidppose chrs to owrs
bimcobaltic international maritime conference波罗的海国际航运工会


blk tit slag   
bodboard of director
bodbunker of delivery交燃油
bod,borbunker on delivery/redel
bofabest offer
bofabest offer boffers
borbunker of redelivery接燃油
botrefer to our telex参阅我们的电传
boxytype hold box shape
bpbritish petrorium   
bpbunker price
brato be agreed
bran pellet
break bulk   
bslbills of lading
bsslps basis lumpsum   
btberth terms(=liner term)
btberth terms泊位条款
btbback to bulk
btgbulk trading group
bvbureau veritas(french ship classification society)法国船级社
bwbrackish water
byrtnby return

  • 行业知识印度港口认可的 IG P&I 以外的商业PNI 公司

    Sr. No.Name of the Non-IG Insurance Companies  1QBE Insurance (Europe) Limited represented by  British Marine, UK2Korea Ship Owner Mutual Protection and Indemnity Association, South Korea3Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance with underwriting agency Lodestar Marine Limited, UK4Ingrosstrakh Insurance Company, Russia5Navigators Insurance Company , USA6Institute of Qeshm International Trust Alliance Mutual Club, Iran7Maritime Mutual Insurance Association [NZ] Ltd., New Zealand   8 Hydor AS, OSLO, Norway9Great American Insurance Company, Singapore Branch10Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Co., Ltd, Japan11M/s MS Amlin Insurance SE. with underwriting agency MS Amlin Marine NV, Belgium 12Aspen Insurance UK Limited with underwriting agency Lodestar Marine Limited, United Kingdom13Swiss Re International SE with underwriting agency EF Marine Pte Ltd. Luxembourg  14M/s. American International Group UK Limited represented by Thomas Miller Specialty Underwriting Agency Ltd. 15M/s. AIG Europe S.A. represented by Thomas Miller Specialty Underwriting Agency Ltd. 16Alandia Forsakring ABP, Finland

    发布于:2023-05-26 00:57:05
  • 招聘上海船东公司招聘: 机务主管或者机务助理1-2名

    船东公司招聘启示: 1.机务主管或者机务助理1-2名 2.工作地点:上海 3.公司运力10条+,要求:轮机长或者大管或者二管证书 英语四级 “全球航线。 简历投放地址jinfuxingsh@126.com wechat:13564749982

    发布于:2023-05-25 22:15:49

    INSTITUTE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY CLAUSESHULLS - TIMEThis insurance is subject to English law and practice1 PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY1.1 The Underwriters agree to indemnify the Assured for any sum or sums paid by the Assured to any other person or persons by reason of the Assured becoming legally liable, as owner of the Vessel, for any claim, demand, damages and/or expenses, where such liability is in consequence of any of the following matters or things and arises from an accident or occurrence during the period of this insurance:1.1.1 loss of or damage to any fixed or movable object or property or other thing or interest whatsoever, other than the Vessel, arising from any cause whatsoever in so far as such loss or damage is not covered by Clause 8 of the Institute Time Clauses Hulls 1/10/83 with 4/4ths substituted for 3/4ths.1.1.2 any attempted or actual raising, removal or destruction of any fixed or movable object or property or other thing, including the wreck of the Vessel, or any neglect or failure to raise, remove or destroy the same1.1.3 liability assumed by the Assured under contracts of customary towage for the purpose of entering or leaving port or manoeuvring within the port during the ordinary course of trading1.1.4 loss of life, personal injury, illness or payments made for life salvage1.1.5 liability under Clause 1(a) of the current Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement in respect of unsuccessful, partially successful, or uncompleted services if and to the extent that the salvor's expenses plus the increment exceed any amount otherwise recoverable under the Agreement.1.2 The Underwriters agree to indemnify the Assured for any of the following arising from an accident or occurrence during the period of this insurance:1.2.1 the additional cost of fuel, insurance, wages, stores, provisions and port charges reasonably incurred solely for the purpose of landing from the Vessel sick or injured persons or stowaways, refugees, or persons saved at sea1.2.2 additional expenses brought about by the outbreak of infectious disease on board the Vessel or ashore1.2.3 fines imposed on the Vessel, on the Assured, or on any Master Officer crew member or agent of the Vessel who is reimbursed by the Assured, for any act or neglect or breach of any statute or regulation relating to the operation of the Vessel, provided that the Underwriters shall not be liable to indemnify the Assured for any fines which result from any act neglect failure or default of the Assured their agents or servants other than Master Officer or crew member1.2.4 the expenses of the removal of the wreck of the Vessel from any place owned, leased or occupied by the Assured1.2.5 legal costs incurred by the Assured, or which the Assured may be compelled to pay, in avoiding, minimising or contesting liability with the prior written consent of the Underwriters.EXCLUSIONS1.3 Notwithstanding the provisions of Clauses 1.1 and 1.2 this Clause 1 does not cover any liability cost or expense arising in respect of:1.3.1 any direct or indirect payment by the Assured under workmen's compensation or employers' liability acts and any other statutory or common law, general maritime law or other liability whatsoever in respect of accidents to or illness of workmen or any other persons employed in any capacity whatsoever by the Assured or others in on or about or in connection with the Vessel or her cargo materials or repairs1.3.2 liability assumed by the Assured under agreement expressed or implied in respect of death or illness of or injury to any persons employed under a contract of service or apprenticeship by the other party to such agreement1.3.3 punitive or exemplary damages, however described1.3.4 cargo or other property carried, to be carried or which has been carried on board the Vessel but this Clause 1.3.4 shall not exclude any claim in respect of the extra cost of removing cargo from the wreck of the Vessel1.3.5 property, owned by builders or repairers or for which they are responsible, which is on board the Vessel1.3.6 liability arising under a contract or indemnity in respect of containers, equipment, fuel or other property on board the Vessel and which is owned or leased by the Assured1.3.7 cash, negotiable instruments, precious metals or stones, valuables or objects of a rare or precious nature, belonging to persons on board the Vessel, or non-essential personal effects of any Master, Officer or crew member1.3.8 fuel, insurance, wages, stores, provisions and port charges arising from delay to the Vessel while awaiting a substitute for any Master, Officer or crew member1.3.9 fines or penalties arising from overloading or illegal fishing1.3.10 pollution or contamination of any real or personal property or thing whatsoever (This Clause 1.3.10 shall not exclude any amount recoverable under Clause 1.1.5).1.3.11 general average, sue and labour and salvage charges, salvage, and/or collision liability to any extent that they are not recoverable by reason of the agreed value and/or the amount insured in respect of the Vessel being inadequate1.3.12 earthquake or volcanic eruption.1.4 PROVIDED ALWAYS THAT1.4.1 prompt notice must be given to the Underwriters of every casualty event or claim upon the Assured which may give rise to a claim hereunder and of every event or matter which may cause the Assured to incur liability costs or expense for which he may be insured hereunder1.4.2 the Assured shall not admit liability for or settle any claim for which he may be insured hereunder without the prior written consent of the Underwriters.2 LIMITS2.1 Where the Assured or the Underwriters may or could have limited their liability the indemnity under this insurance in respect of such liability shall not exceed Underwriters' proportionate part of the amount of such limitation.2.2 In no case shall the Underwriters' liability under this insurance exceed their proportionate part of the amount insured hereunder in respect of each separate accident or occurrence or series of accidents arising out of the same event.3 DEDUCTIBLE3.1 Notwithstanding the provisions of Clause 1 no claim shall be payable under this insurance unless such claim, or the aggregate of all such claims arising out of each separate accident or occurrence, exceeds {Response} in which case this sum shall be deducted.3.2 Excluding any interest comprised therein, recoveries against any claim which is subject to the above deductible shall be credited to the Underwriters in full to the extent of the sum by which the aggregate of the claim unreduced by any recoveries exceeds the above deductible.3.3 Interest in recoveries shall be apportioned between the Assured and the Underwriters, taking into account the sums paid by the Underwriters and the dates when such payments were made, notwithstanding that by the addition of interest the Underwriters may receive a larger sum that they have paid.4 NAVIGATIONThe Vessel has leave to dock and undock, to go into graving dock, to sail or navigate with or without pilots, to go on trial trips and to assist and tow vessels or craft in distress, but it is warranted that the Vessel shall not be towed, except as is customary or when in need of assistance, or undertake towage or salvage services under a contract previously arranged by the Assured and/or Owners and/or Managers and/or Charterers without the prior written agreement of the Underwriters.  This Clause 4 shall not exclude customary towage in connection with loading and discharging.5 TERMINATIONThis Clause 5 shall prevail notwithstanding any provision whether written typed or printed in this insurance inconsistent therewith.Unless Underwriters agree to the contrary in writing, this insurance shall terminate automatically at the time of5.1 change of the Classification Society of the Vessel, or change, suspension, discontinuance, withdrawal or expiry of her Class therein.  However where such change, suspension, discontinuance or withdrawal of her Class has resulted from loss or damage covered by Clause 6 of the Institute Time Clauses - Hulls 1/10/83 or which would be covered by an insurance of the Vessel subject to current lnstitute War and Strikes Clauses Hulls - Time such automatic termination shall not operate5.2 any change, voluntary or otherwise, in the ownership or flag, transfer to new management, or charter on a bareboat basis, or requisition for title or use of the Vessel.  However, in the event of requisition for title or use without the prior execution of a written agreement by the Assured, such automatic termination shall occur fifteen days after such requisition whether the Vessel is in port or at sea.6 BREACH OF WARRANTYHeld covered in case of any breach of warranty as to cargo, trade, locality, towage, salvage services or date of sailing, provided notice be given to the Underwriters immediately after receipt of advices and any amended terms of cover and any additional premium required by them be agreed.7 ASSIGNMENTNo assignment of or interest in this insurance or in any moneys which may be or become payable thereunder is to be binding on or recognised by the Underwriters unless a dated notice of such assignment or interest signed by the Assured, and by the assignor in case of subsequent assignment, is endorsed on the Policy and the Policy with such endorsement is produced before payment of any claim or return of premium thereunder.8 DUTY OF ASSUREDIt is a condition of this insurance that the Assured and their servants and agents take such measures as may be reasonable for the purpose of averting or minimising a loss which would be recoverable under this insurance.9 RETURNS FOR CANCELLATIONTo return pro rata monthly net for each uncommenced month if this insurance be cancelled either by agreement or by the operation of Clause 5 provided that a total loss of the Vessel, whether by insured perils or otherwise, has not occurred during the period of this insurance or any extension thereof.10 WAR, STRIKES, MALICIOUS ACTS AND NUCLEAR RISKS PARAMOUNT EXCLUSIONIn no case shall this insurance cover liability cost or expense arising as a result of the operation of one or more of the following perils:10.1 war civil war revolution rebellion insurrection, or civil strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act by or against a belligerent power10.2 capture seizure arrest restraint or detainment (barratry and piracy excepted), and the consequences thereof or any attempt thereat10.3 derelict mines torpedoes bombs or other derelict weapons of war10.4 strikers, locked-out workmen, or persons taking part in labour disturbances, riots or civil commotions10.5 any terrorist or any person acting from a political motive10.6 the use of any weapon of war, or the detonation of an explosive, by any person acting maliciously or from a political motive10.7 any weapon of war employing atomic or nuclear fission and/or fusion or other like reaction or radioactive force or matter.20/7/87CL344  © Copyright The Institute of London Underwriters 

    发布于:2023-05-17 14:32:43
  • 租船菲律宾想要1-2万dwt左右的船做减载


    发布于:2023-04-27 09:37:42
  • 行业知识无单放货- 提单持有人扣船索赔的和解协议

      SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT This Settlement Agreement (the “Agreement”) is made on this ___ day of April 2023. BY AND BETWEEN:(1) The Owners of the vessel “AAAAAA  (hereinafter referred to as “the Shipowners”); and (2) BBBBBBBBBBB (hereinafter referred to as the “Receivers”); and  Each, a “Party” and together the “Parties”. WHEREAS: A. The Receivers hereby warrant and confirm that they are the holder of the first original, second original, third original, negotiable copy and non-negotiable copy of the Bill of Lading bearing No. RC-KDL-18A.B.  The Receivers claimed that 1000 MT of Cargo under Bill of Lading No. RC-KDL-18A was not delivered to them despite presentation of the Original Bill of Lading No. RC-KDL-18A. The Receivers approached the High Court of Gujarat and filed Admiralty Suit No. 6/2023 for alleged misdelivery/non-delivery of 1000 MT of Cargo and claimed a sum of USD 450,000.00 plus interest as compensation and costs (the “Receiver’s Claim”). The Hon’ble High Court of Gujarat by order dated 01.04.2023 passed and order of arrest of the Vessel, towards security for the Receivers Claim.    C. While the Vessel remained under arrest and Admiralty Suit was pending, pursuant to various without prejudice discussions between the Shipowners and the Receivers, the Parties have agreed to amicably settle their disputes on a without prejudice, without admission of liability basis and finalized a settlement sum totalling to US$ 210,000.00______________ (United States Dollars Two hundred and ten thousand only________________) in lump sum as full and final settlement of the Receiver’s allegedClaims. IN CONSIDERATION FOR THE MUTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND PROMISES HEREIN AFTER CONTAINED IT IS HEREBY AGREED AS FOLLOWS:(1) In full and final settlement of the Receiver’s Claims, including all interest and all legal costs relating thereto, the Shipowners agree to pay the Receivers the sum of US$ 210,000.00______________ (United States Dollars Two hundred and ten thousand only________________) (the “Settlement Proceeds”). (2) 50% of the Settlement Proceeds shall be made immediately up on execution of the Settlement Agreement and the remaining 50% shall be made within three (3) working___ days from the date of obtaining order of release of the Vessel from the High Court of Gujarat. (3) The Receiver delivery the original Bill of loading to ship-owner via their lawyer : xxxxxx to ship-owner within 1 day  when they received the total sum of USD 210,000.00 .(4) Payment of the Settlement Proceeds will be made to the Receivers, to the account mentioned below [please provide]:                Beneficiary:               Bank:               Current Account number:                SWIFT:               IFSC:               Branch:               Bank Address:  (5) All Parties and signatories hereby confirm that they have all requisites and necessary corporate powers and resolutions and have full authority to execute this Agreement. This Agreement may be signed and exchanged by fax or as attachment of email and shall be binding as such. (6) The Agreement is in full and final settlement of the Receiver’s Claims and any claim arising out of or in connection with the Bills of Lading and in consideration of the Settlement Proceeds, the Receivers and/or their cargo insurers irrevocably agree upon receipt of the Settlement Proceeds to: i) immediately produce this Agreement before the High Court of Gujarat, obtain an order of release of the Vessel and withdraw the Admiralty Suit, unconditionally and no later than 24 hours from the receipt of 50% of the Settlement Proceeds;  ii) Immediately handover the first original, second original, third original, negotiable copy and non-negotiable copy of the Bill of Lading bearing No. RC-KDL-18A and provide anundertakeing in writing stating that the Bills of Lading isare the original Bills of Lading with respect to 1000 MT of theCargo and no other Bills of lading in respect of theCargo are in circulation.  iii) immediately and forever release and discharge the Shipowners, their managers, operators, charterers, agents, master, crewmembers, correspondents, insurers, P&I clubs, sister ships, associated ships and/or any other party interested in the M.V. "AAAA" from any liability for any and all losses, expenses, costs, legal proceedings and/or others arising from and/or in connection with the Cargo carried under bills of lading bearing number  XXXXXXXXXXXXX  dated 03.09.2022 from any other party including but not limited toother B/L notify party and/or their cargo underwriters.. iv) indemnify the Shipowners, their directors, officers, employees, agents, correspondents, insurers, managers, subsidiaries, affiliates, successors and assignees and all financial entities or other organizations or persons having financial interest in the said Vessel, her charterers, managers, operators and all other persons, firms or corporations having any interest therein or connected therewith and hold them free and harmless for all claims, actions, proceedings, suits, obligations, damages, sum of money, and/or demands of every kind and nature, past, present and future whether arising out of the Bills of Lading bearing number XXXXXXX   dated 03.09.2022 or contract or law or in equity or in tort or in bailment that the Receivers or any other party may bring against the vessel M.V “AAAAA 2”, her sister ships, associated ships, the Shipowners, managers, all financial entities or other organizations or persons having financial interest in the said Vessel, her charterers, managers, operators and all other persons, firms or corporations having any interest therein or connected therewith. (7) In consideration of the Settlement Proceeds, the Receivers further irrevocably agree to refrain from arresting and/or detaining M.V. AAAAA  or her sister ships or associates ships or any other property in the same ownership or management or control, in connection with the Receiver’s Claims or any claim arising out of or in connection with Bills of Lading bearing number XXXXXXXXXXXX  dated 03.09.2022 or from initiating Suit or any legal proceedings in any jurisdiction in the world. (8) In consideration of the receipt of the Settlement Proceeds, the Receivers further confirm that they will not seek indemnity and/or reimbursement from their cargo insurers which could trigger recovery proceedings against the vessel M.V “AAAAA”, her Owners, managers, all financial entities or other organizations or persons having financial interest in the said Vessel, her charterers, managers, operators and all other persons, firms or corporations having any interest therein or connected therewith; The Parties expressly recognise that the Settlement Proceeds are to be retained by way of commercial settlement and in no way, constitute any admission of liability on behalf of the Parties.(9) The parties shall each bear their own legal costs in relation to this Agreement. (10) The Agreement contains the entire agreement between the Parties and supersedes any previous  undertaking, commitment, agreement or oral or written representation whatsoever, in respect of the subject matter hereof. (11) This Settlement Agreement shall be executed in 2 (two) originals, one set for each party, but all the counterparts shall together constitute one and the same instrument.   (12) The Agreement is to be governed by and constructed in accordance with English Law, and any dispute arising hereunder shall be referred to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English High Court at London.  IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have each by their duly authorized representatives executed this Agreement on the date first above written: Signed………………………………..For and on behalf of ShipownersName:Designation: Signed……………………………….For and on behalf of Receivers Name:Designation:

    发布于:2023-04-12 09:46:54
  • 行业知识对于重新签发提单的个人承诺保证函

    下面该个人保证函的样本为我个人根据自己的理解起草,不作为权威参考,如有需要修改和商榷的地方,也欢迎与本人联系 chenguoqing@aiship.cn 至: M/V XXX 船舶所有人及相关利益方 本人XXX , 作为xxxx 公司的法人代表, 因要求向贵司申请重新签发提单,现向贵司做出如下保证和个人担保: 贵司船长委托代理XXXXX向发货人 XXXXXX 签发的关于    xxxx WMT 关于从印度 HALDIA 港口装载的货物 IRON ORE FINES,  现在因为发货人的贸易的变更需要,要求重新出具一份新的提单。 对此, 本人做出如下确认和保证: 1、上述代表贵司船长签发的提单原件,目前在我手上,我会在 10个工作日内将该原件就交还给贵司;2、我保证不会将该提单原件转让给其他任何第三方;3、如果贵司因为任何第三方以该提单的缘由向贵司提起任何要求交付货物的要求或者其他索赔,我,个人将对贵司遭受的一切损失和责任, 全权承担责任。 如发生任何争议, 本人愿意接受中国法院以及中国法律的司法管辖。  附上提单样本,本人签名。    承诺保证人:                     时间:                       

    发布于:2023-04-02 09:50:10
  • 行业知识共同海损包含的费用项目

    共同海损分为共同海损牺牲,和共同海损费用。    下面讲述共同海损费用的分类:1、 救助报酬 (salvage reward)2、搁浅船舶减载费用以及因此而受的损害(Expense lightening a ship when ashore,and consequent damage)3、避难港费用;4、驶往和停留在避难港等地所消耗的燃料、物料; ( GONGEN 94 船员工资可以计入共损,   GONGEN 2004 船员工资不列入共损)5、修理费用;(分临时修理,和永久修理)6、替代费用;7、垫付手续费(2004年规则垫付手续费没有)和保险费;8、利息;9、理算费用

    发布于:2023-01-28 20:59:51
  • 行业知识巴黎备忘录-白旗 White List

    IG P&I 大多要求其入会船舶悬挂旗帜为白旗, 在巴黎备忘录上, 分为白旗,灰旗,黑旗, 详情见附件名单.

    发布于:2023-01-19 18:02:14
  • 行业知识海事赔偿责任限制的丧失

    1957《船舶所有人责任限制公约》对两类主体责任限制的丧失,分别规定了不同的条件。作为第一类责任限制主体(船舶所有人、承租人、管理人、经营人),如果自身因为“实际过失或知情放任”(actual fault or privity)引起损害赔偿,那么就丧失了责任限制的权利。但是如果导致损害发生的事故是由于第二类责任限制主体(船长、船员及其他受雇人)的“实际过失或知情放任”引起的,第一类主体仍可以限制责任。有一种情况需要注意的是两类主体发生“竞合”,即船长或是船员同时又是船舶管理人时,仅在其行为、疏忽或过失是以该船的船长、船员身份做出时,才能享受责任限制的保护。*简介:本公约于1957年10月10日在布鲁塞尔召开的第十届海洋法外交会议上通过。参加本公约的国家有:澳大利亚、比利时、丹麦、芬兰、法国、德国、英国、印度、以色列、日本、荷兰、挪威、波兰、葡萄牙、西班牙、瑞典、瑞士、阿尔及利亚、斐济、加纳、巴哈马、巴巴多斯、多米尼加、格林纳达、圭亚那、冰岛、伊朗、马尔加什、毛里求斯、摩纳哥、巴布亚新几内亚、新加坡、叙利亚、汤加、阿拉伯联邦共和国、瓦努阿图、扎伊尔等。 [1]    1976《海事索赔责任限制公约》规定:如果经证明,损害是由于责任人本身故意或明知可能造成此种损害而轻率地作为或不为所致,该责任人就无权限制其责任。由于公约第1条对有权享受责任限制的人有具体的规定,因此船舶管理人属于“责任人”的范畴。公约强调了责任限制的丧失与否取决于责任人“本身”的行为,其代理人、受雇人的行为并不影响责任人责任限制的权利。同样的,责任人本人的作为或不为使自己丧失这一权利,并不必然导致其他主体也丧失责任限制的权利。所以在具体事故中,船舶管理人责任限制权利的有无并不影响其他主体的责任限制权利,也不受其他主体的影响。 第三条 不受责任限制的索赔  本公约的规则不适用于:  (1)有关救助或共同海损分摊的索赔;  (2)有关1969年11月29日国际油污损害民事责任公约的规定,或实 施中的该公约修正案或议定书中所载油污损害的索赔;  (3)根据管辖或禁止核能损害责任限制的任何国际公约或国内法提出的索赔 ;  (4)对核子船舶所有人提出的核子损害索赔;  (5)所任职务与船舶或救助作业有关的船舶所有人或救助人的雇用人员,包 括他们的继承人、亲属或有权提出索赔要求的其它人员所提出的索赔,如果按照船 舶所有人或救助同雇用人之间的服务合同所适用的法律,船舶所有人或救助人无权 在此类索赔方面限制其责任,或者根据此项法律,仅允许将其责任限制在较本公约 第六条规定的限额为高时。  第四条 不得享受责任限制的行为  如经证明,损失是由于责任人本身为蓄意造成这一损失,或者明知可能造成这 一损失而轻率地采取的行为或不为所引起,该责任人便无权限制其责任。  第五条 反索赔  如果按照本公约规定有权享受责任限制的人,就同一事件向索赔人提出索赔, 则双方提出的索赔应相互抵销,而本公约的规定则仅适用于其间的差额(如有差额 )。  第二章 责任限制  第六条 一般限制  1.除第七条所列者外,在任一具体情况下提出的索赔的责任限制,应按下列 方法计算:  (1)有关人身伤亡的索赔:  ①凡吨位不超过500吨的船舶,为333,000计算单位;  ②凡吨位超过500吨的船舶,除第①项外,还应增加下列数额:  自501吨至3,000吨,每吨为500计算单位;  自3,001吨至30,000吨,每吨为333计算单位;  自30,001吨至70,000吨,每吨为250计算单位;  超过70,000吨,每吨为167计算单位。  (2)有关其它方面的索赔:  ①凡吨位不超过500吨的船舶,为167,000计算单位;  ②凡吨位超过500吨的船舶,除第①项外,还应增加下列数额:  自501吨至30,000吨,每吨为167计算单位;  自30,000吨至70,000吨,每吨为125计算单位;  超过70,000吨,每吨为83计算单位。  2.但是,如果依照第1款第(1)项计算的那部分款额不敷支付全部索赔, 则依照第1款第(2)项计算的数额,应用以支付第1款第(1)项下所未支付的 差额,而此项未付差额应同第1款第(2)项的索赔按比例取偿。  3.但是,在无损于按第2款提出的关于人身伤亡的索赔权利的情况下,缔约 国可在国内法中规定,对港口工程、港池、航道和助航设施的损害所提出的索赔, 应依该法规定而享有较第1款第2项所载其它索赔优先受偿的权利。  4.凡不从任何船舶进行施救工作的救助人,或者只是在对之进行施救工作的 船上作业的救助人,其责任限制应按吨位为1,500吨的船舶计算。  5.就本公约而言,船舶吨位应为根据《1969年国际船舶吨位丈量公约》 附件Ⅰ中所载吨位丈量规则计算的总吨位。  第七条 旅客索赔的责任限制  1.对于在任一具体情况下提出的有关船上旅客人身伤亡的索赔,船舶所有人 的责任限制,为46,666计算单位乘以船舶证书上规定的该船载客定额所得的 数额,但不得超过25,000,000计算单位。  2.就本条而言,"船上旅客人身伤亡的索赔",是指该船所载下列任何人所 提出或代其提出的任何此种索赔,即:  (1)根据旅客运输契约而载运者;或  (2)经承运人同意,随同照料货物运输契约中所载车辆或活动物者。  第八条 计算单位  1.上述第六条、第七条所述计算单位,是指国际货币基金组织所规定的特别 提款权。第六条、第七条所述数额,应按照责任限制基金设立之日、付款之日或根 据该国法律与此项付款等值的担保提出之日该国货币的价值,折算成谋求责任限制 所有国家的本国货币。凡属国际货币基金组织成员国的本公约缔约国,其以特别提 款权表示的本国货币的价值,应按国际货币基金组织在上述日期在进行营业和交易 中适用的现行定价办法计算。非属国际货币基金组织成员国的本公约缔约国,其以 特别提款权表示的本国货币的价值,应按该缔约国确定的办法计算。  2.但是,非属国际货币基金组织成员国,且其法律不允许实施本条第1款规 定办法的国家,可在签字并无保留地批准、接受或认可之时,或在批准、接受、认 可或加入之时,或在此后任何时期宣布,将在其领土内适用的本公约所规定的责任 限制,确定如下:  (1)有关第六条第1款第(1)项:①凡吨位不超过500吨的船舶,为5 ,000,000货币单位;②凡吨位不超过500吨的船舶,除第①项外,还应 增加下列数额:  自501吨至3,000吨,每吨为7,500货币单位;  自3,001吨至30,000吨,每吨为5,000货币单位;  自30,001吨至70,000吨,每吨为3,750货币单位;  超过70,000吨,每吨为2,500货币单位。  (2)有关第六条第1款第(2)项:  ①凡吨位不超过500吨的船舶,为2,500,000货币单位;  ②凡吨位超过500吨的船舶,除第①项外,还应增加下列数额;  自501吨至30,000吨,每吨为2,500货币单位;  自30,001吨至70,000吨,每吨为1,850货币单位;  超过70,000吨,每吨为1,250货币单位。  (3)有关第七条第1款,为700,000货币单位乘以船舶证书上规定的 载客定额所得的数额,但不得超过375,000,000货币单位。 第六条第2款和第3款的规定,相应地适用于本款第(1)和第(2)项。  3.上述第2款所指货币单位,相当于纯度为千分之九百的黄金65.5毫克 。将第2款规定的货币单位数额折算成国家货币时,应按有关国家的法律办理。  4.第1款末句所述计算办法和第3款所述折算办法,应能使第六条和第七条 所述数额在以缔约国本国货币计算时,尽可能表示出上述条款中按计算单位计算时 的同一真实价值。缔约国在签字并无保留地批准、接受或认可之时,或在交存第十 六条所指文件之时,应视情况向本公约保管人提交第1款所述计算办法,或第3款 所述折算结果,并在其变更时作出相应的通知。  第九条 索赔总额  1.根据第六条规定的责任限额,应适用于下列各项索赔总额:  (1)对第一条第2款所指任何人以及他或他们对其行为、疏忽或过失负责的 任何人提出的索赔;  (2)对从另一艘船舶进行施救工作的该船船舶所有人,和从这种船舶进行施 救工作的救助人,以及他或他们对其行为、疏忽或过失负责的任何人提出的索赔;  (3)对不是从另一艘船舶进行施救工作的救助人,或者只是在对之进行施救 工作的船上作业的救助人,以及他或他们对其行为、疏忽或过失负责的任何人提出 的索赔。  2.按第七条规定的责任限制,适用于可能在任何特定情况下,就第一条第2 款所述有关第七条所指船舶的负有赔偿责任的任何人,以及他或他们对其行为、疏 忽或过失负责的任何人提出的各项索赔的总额。  第十条 没有设立责任限制基金的责任限制  1.尽管第十一条所述责任限制基金尚未设立,也可以援引责任限制。但是, 缔约国可在其国内法中规定,当在其法院审理须受责任限制的索赔时,只有在责任 人已按本公约规定设立责任限制基金,或在援用责任限制权利时设立该项基金,才 能援用责任限制的权利。  2.如在没有设立责任限制基金的情况下援用责任限制,应相应地适用第十二 条的规定。  3.根据本条规定发生的诉讼程序问题,应按受理诉讼的缔约国本国法律决定 。  第三章 责任限制基金  第十一条 基金的设立  1.被认定负有责任的任何人,可在提出责任限制索赔诉讼的任何缔约国法院 或其他主管当局,设立基金。此项基金应为按照第六条和第七条规定适用于对该责 任者提出索赔的金额,加上从事故发生引起责任之日起至基金设立之日为止的利息 。此项基金仅可用于支付援用责任限制的索赔。  2.设立基金可以储存专款,或提出为设立基金的缔约国法律所允许并经法院 或其他主管当局认可的担保。  3.由第九条第1款第(1)、(2)或第(3)项所述当事人之一或其保险 人所设立的基金,应被认为是由第1款第(1)、(2)或第(3)项或第2款所 述所有当事人所设立。  第十二条 基金的分配  1.根据第六条第1款、第2款和第3款以及第七条的规定,基金应在索赔人 之间,依其对该基金确立的索赔额,按比例分配。  2.如在基金分配之前,责任人或其保险人已就对该基金的索赔付款结案,则 他在已付金额范围内,应依代位权获得此受偿人根据本公约所可享有的权利。  3.本条第2款所规定的代位权,也可由该款所述者之外的人在其已付赠偿金 额内行使,但仅以所适用的国内法允许行使此种代位权为限。  4.如果责任人或任何其他人认定,假若赔偿金在基金分配之前即已付出,他 便可能在基金分配之后的某日被强制支付赔偿金额的全部或一部,而根据本第第2 款及第3款,该人对此项赔偿本可享有代位权,则基金设在国的法院或主管当局可 以下令暂时拨出一个足够数额,以便该人在上述日期对此基金行使其索赔权。  第十三条 其他法律行为的禁止  1.如果责任限制基金已按第十一条的规定设立,则已向基金提出索赔的任何 人,不得针对该项索赔而对由其设立或以其名义设立基金的人的任何其他财产,行 使任何权利。  2.责任限制基金已按第十一条规定设立之后,则以其名义设立基金之人所属 任何船舶或其财产,凡是因向基金提出索赔而已依缔约国管辖权予以扣押或扣留的 属于基金设立人名下的任何船舶或其他财产,或是由他提交的抵押品,均可由该国 法院或其主管当局下令开释或退还。而如果此项基金已在下列地点设立,则应一律 发出此种开释命令:  (1)已在事故发生港设立,而如事故发生在港外,则已在下一停靠港设立;  (2)对于人身伤亡的索赔,已在登陆港设立;  (3)对于货损,已在卸货港设立;  (4)已在执行扣押的国家设立。  3.第1款和第2款的规则,仅在索赔人向管理责任限制基金的法院就该基金 提出索赔,而且就该项索赔而言,确有基金可用,并可自由划拨时,才可适用。  第十四条 法律管辖  关于责任限制基金的设立与分配规则,以及与其有关的一切程序规则,除按本 章规定办理外,应受基金设在国法律管辖。第四章 适用范围  第十五条  1.凡是第一条所指的任何人,当其谋求在缔约国法院获得责任限制,或谋求 开释在此类国家管辖下的船舶或其他财产,或退还其所提交的任何抵押品时,均适 用本公约,然而,当本公约的规则在缔约国法院被援用时,如果第一条所指的任何 人,在缔约国并无常住地点,或在缔约国并无主要营业处所,或为其谋求责任限制 或开释的任何船舶在当时并非悬挂缔约国国旗时,各缔约国可以全部或部分排除其 对本公约的适用。  2.缔约国可以通过国内法的具体规定,使责任限制制度适用于下列船舶:  (1)依照该国法律规定,意欲在内陆水域航行的船舶;  (2)小于300吨的船舶;  缔约国在行使本款规定的任选权时,应将国内法规定的责任限制或者并无此种 规定的事实,通知本公约保管人。  3.缔约国可以通过国内法的具体规定,使责任限制制度适用于毫不涉及其它 缔约国国民利益的索赔.  4.缔约国法院在下列情况下,不应使本公约适用于为钻探而建造或改建并从 事钻探作业的船舶:  (1)当该国已根据国内法规定制订一项高于本公约第六条规定的责任限制时 ;或者  (2)当该国已成为调节有关这种船舶责任制度的一项国际公约的缔约国时。  在适用本款第1项的情况下,该缔约国应相应地通知本公约的保管人。  5.本公约不适用于:  (1)气垫船;  (2)用于勘探或开采海底自然资源或其底土的浮动平台。  第五章 最后条款  第十六条 签字。批准和加入  1.本公约自1977年2月1日起至1977年12月31日止,在政府海 事协商组织(以下简称"海协")总部向所有国家开放,以供签字,并在其后继续 开放,以供加入。  2.各国可以通过下列方式成为本公约缔约国:  (1)签字并无保留地批准、接受或认可;或者  (2)签字并须经批准、接受或认可,随后予以批准、接受或认可;或者  (3)加入。  3.批准、接受、认可或加入本公约,应向"海协"秘书长(以下简称"秘书 长")交存一份载有上述意图的正式文件。  第十七条 生效  1.本公约自十二个国家已在本公约签字并无保留地批准,接受或认可,或者 已经交存所需批准、接受、认可或加入文件之日一年后次月第一日起生效。  2.对于在本公约生效条件已得到满足之后但却在生效之日以前交存批准、接 受、认可或加入文,或者签字并无保留地批准、接受或认可的国家,其批准、接受 、认可或加入或者其签字并无保留地批准、接受、或认可等项,应自本公约生效之 日或签字之日,或交存文件之日第九十天后次月第一日起生效,二者之中以较迟者 为准。  3.对于任何一个在本公约生效之后成为本公约缔约国的国家,本公约应自该 国交存其文件之日九十天后次月第一日起生效。  4.对于批准、接受、认可或加入本公约的国家之间的关系,本公约应取代并 废止1957年10月10日在布鲁塞尔签订的《海上船舶所有人责任限制公约》 和1924年8月25日在布鲁塞尔签订的《关于统一海上船舶所有人责任限制某 些规则的国际公约》。  第十八条 保留  1.任何国家均可在签字、批准、接受、认可或加入本公约时,保留不适用第 二条第1款第(4)项和第(5)项的权利。但对本公约的实质性条款,不得作任 何其他保留。  2.在签字时所作的保留,须在批准、接受或认可时予以确认。  3.对本公约作出保留的任何国家,均可在任何时日通过寄交秘书长的通知而 予以撤销。这种撤销,应自通知收到之日起生效。如果该通知声称,对于保留的撤 销应自通知中具体规定的日期起生效,而这一日期又较秘书长收到通知之日为迟, 则撤销应自这一较迟日期起生效。  第十九条 退出  1.缔约国可在本公约对该国生效之日一年后的任何时日,退出本公约。  2.退出本公约,应向秘书长交存一份文件。  3.退出本公约,应自交存退出通知之日一年后次月第一日起,或自该通知中 所载较此为长的期限起生效。  第二十条 修订和修正  1.修订或修正本公约的会议,可由"海协"召开。  2.经不少于三分之一缔约国要求,"海协"应召开本公约缔约国会议,修订 或修正本公约。  3.凡在本公约的修正案生效之日以后交存的任何批准、接受、认可或加入文 件,除非已在文件中表示相反意愿,便应视为适用于修正后的本公约。  第二十一条 对限额和计算单位或货币单位的修改  1.尽管有第二十条的规定,"海协"仍可依照本条第2款和第3款的规定, 召开专门会议,改变本公约第六条和第七条以及第八条第2款规定的限额,或以其 他单位代替第八条第1款和第2款规定的两个单位,或其中之一。只有在其实际价 值发生显著变化时,才能对限额作出改变。  2.经不少于四分之一的缔约国要求,"海协"应召开上述会议。  3.改变限额或以其他计算单位代替原有单位的决定,应由上述会议到会并投 票的缔约国三分之二多数作出。  4.凡在修正案生效后交存其批准、接受、认可或加入本公的文件的国家,应 适用修正后的本公约。  第二十二条 保管  1.本公约应由秘书长保管。  2.秘书长应当:  (1)向被邀请出席海事索赔责任限制会议的所有国家和加入本公约的任何其 他国家,分送经过核证无误的本公约副本;  (2)通知已签署或加入本公约的所有国家;  ①每一新的签署和每一文件交存事项以及对其所作任何保留及其日期;  ②本公约或本公约的任何修正案的生效日期;  ③任何退出本公约事项及其生效日期;  ④依照第二十条或第二十一条规定通过的任何修正案;  ⑤由本公约任何条文所要求的任何通知事项。  3.本公约一经生效,秘书长便应依照联合国宪章第102条,将一份核证无 误的本公约副本,送交联合国秘书长登记并公布。  第二十三条 语言  本公约以英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文写成,正本共一份,每种文本具有同等 效力。  1976年11月19日订于伦敦。  为此而被正式授权的下列具名者,特签署本公约,以昭信守。

    发布于:2022-12-02 11:53:23
  • 航运见闻2022年9月19日:欧盟发布对俄罗斯制裁(煤炭、固态化石燃料、肥料等)最新解答

    继2022年8月10日欧盟发布关于833/2014规定的常见问题解答后时隔一月有余,欧盟于2022年9月19日对其常见问题集再次作出了修订,进一步澄清对从俄罗斯运输特定货物适用相关制裁规定的范围,当中包括煤炭、固态化石燃料,以及特定类别的肥料。与欧盟在8月份做出解答时所取立场相反,常见问题集现在明确指出,就煤炭和某些在欧盟理事会条例833/2014附件XXI中的特定货物 (以及相关保险) 的运输,在其运往欧盟之外的第三国的情况下欧盟制裁并不予以禁止。2022年9月19日,欧盟就限制全球运输俄罗斯煤炭、化肥及其他货物的态度发生大转变。9月19日,欧盟发布了关于对俄制裁常见问题的最新解释。在19日的最新解释里,欧盟翻转了2022年8月12日发布的就俄罗斯原产地的煤炭、化肥等货物制裁限制扩大化的解释。这版更新的FAQs澄清:对某些化肥和煤炭的限制不包括禁止它们被转运到第三国以及相关的保险和经纪服务。详细内容如下:1、如果目的地是第三国且没有过境欧盟领土,欧盟的公司是否被允许购买Council Regulation 833/2014中Annexes XVII, XXI和XXII上所列的货物?Last update: 29 August 2022答案是否定的。Council Regulation 833/2014中的第3g、3i和3j禁止直接或间接购买、进口或转让原产于俄罗斯或出口自俄罗斯的Annexes XVII、XXI和XXII中所列的货物。购买禁令与货物的最终目的地无关。如果货物的购买属于Regulation 833/2014中第13条的范畴,则该批货物与是否运往欧盟无甚关系。这种制裁的目的就是要大幅削弱俄罗斯的经济基础、剥夺这些产品的主要市场并最大程度上削减其发动战争的能力。任何其他解读都将很大程度上使禁令偏离最初的目的并导致重大漏洞。请注意,购买俄罗斯海运原油的情况与此不同(关于“石油进口”中常见问题的第15条)。2、如果目的地是第三国且没有过境欧盟领土,欧盟公司是否允许转让Council Regulation 833/2014中Annexes XVII, XXI和XXII上所列的货物?Last update: 19 September 2022答案是否定的。Council Regulation 833/2014中的第3g、3i和3j禁止直接或间接购买、进口或转让原产于俄罗斯或出口自俄罗斯的Annexes XVII、XXI和XXII中所列的货物。转让禁令与货物的最终目的地无关,但进口禁令本质上对进入欧盟的货物都适用。如果货物的转让属于Regulation 833/2014中第13条的范畴,则该批货物与是否运往欧盟无甚关系。这种制裁的目的就是要大幅削弱俄罗斯的经济基础、剥夺这些产品的主要市场并极大地削减其发动战争的能力。任何其他解读都将很大程度上使禁令偏离最初的目的并导致重大漏洞。不过,欧盟致力于避免因其制裁而影响到第三国的粮食和能源安全,尤其是那些最不发达国家。Council Regulation 2022/1269的序言11和12中明确规定,应允许向第三国转让Annex XXI和XXII中所列的某些货物,以“应对全球粮食和能源危机”,并避免由此在第三国产生的任何潜在的负面影响。本条适用于由欧盟经营者或通过欧盟领土(包括过境)向第三国转让以下货物,以及与此类转让相关的金融或财务援助:Annex XXI所列CN codes 310420、310520、310560、ex31059020和ex31059080项下的化肥及相关商品;Annex XXI所列CN code 2303项下的动物饲料;Annex XXI所列CN codes ex2901和2902项下的某些碳氢化合物;Annex XXI所列CN codes 44(木材)项下的必需品;2523和6810(水泥产品);Annex XXII中所列项目(煤炭及相关产品)。3、这里“购买”或“转让”是否也涉及到那些在出台限制措施之前已经在欧盟领土内自由流通的受限制的货物?Last update: 10 August 2022答案是否定的。Council Regulation 833/2014第3g、3i、3j和3m中的限制条件不涉及到在限制措施生效时已经在欧盟领土内自由流通(即,通常已投放到市场上)的货物。4、Council Regulation 833/2014第3g、3i和3j中规定的禁止向第三国运输或转移Annexes XVII, XXI或XXII中所列货物或产品的相关服务(例如金融援助,包括经纪或保险)的范围有哪些?Last update: 19 September 2022禁止欧盟经营商向第三国运输或转移Annexes XVII、XXI或XXII中所列的货物或产品提供保险、经纪服务或其他金融或财务援助。如果与此类运输相关的援助提供者是欧盟经营商,无论这些货物或产品的转让是由欧盟或非欧盟经营人操作,他们均受禁令的约束。不过,欧盟致力于避免因其制裁而影响到第三国的粮食和能源安全,尤其是那些最不发达国家。Council Regulation 2022/1269的序言11和12中明确规定,应允许向第三国转让Annex XXI和XXII中所列的某些货物,以“应对全球粮食和能源危机”,并避免由此在第三国产生的任何潜在的负面影响。本条适用于由欧盟经营者或通过欧盟领土(包括过境)向第三国转让的以下货物,以及与此类转让相关的金融或财务援助:Annex XXI所列CN codes 310420、310520、310560、ex31059020和ex31059080项下的化肥及相关商品;Annex XXI所列CN code 2303项下的动物饲料;Annex XXI所列CN codes ex2901和2902项下的某些碳氢化合物;Annex XXI所列CN codes 44(木材)项下的必需品;2523和6810(水泥产品);Annex XXII中所列项目(煤炭及相关产品)。5、Council Regulation 833/2014中关于购买、进口或转让的限制规定里有一个除外情况,即允许在指定日期前执行完先前的合同,那么此限制规定是否允许欧盟经营商在此日期之后根据合同向其俄罗斯合作方付款?Last update: 26 August 2022欧盟委员会的意见是,虽然对于购买、进口或转让的限制规定里破例允许在指定日期之前执行先前的合同,但不允许在该日期之后向俄罗斯合作方付款。因为付款是合同执行的一部分,即使原产自俄罗斯的货物已经收到,欧盟经营商依然被禁止在此之后进行此类付款行为。关于欧盟制裁在具体案例中的具体实施问题,需要向相关国家的主管当局提出。附言:上述译文仅供参考,具体请以欧盟的英文原文为准。对于欧盟这份最新常见问题解答,各保赔协会也在分析研究相关内容,并会陆续更新他们的通函。我司也在密切关注各保赔协会的动态,稍后会发布各保赔协会的最新通函。

    发布于:2022-11-07 09:32:36